Limits...
History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

Goriaux C, Théron E, Brasset E, Vaury C - Front Genet (2014)

Bottom Line: The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998.As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals.Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire GReD, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont Université - Université d'Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand France ; INSERM, U 1103, Clermont-Ferrand France ; CNRS, UMR 6293, Clermont-Ferrand France.

ABSTRACT
The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

No MeSH data available.


Molecular structure of the flam locus. The CI binding site, the transcription start site and the strong biased orientation of TEs indicated by arrows are schematized.
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Figure 3: Molecular structure of the flam locus. The CI binding site, the transcription start site and the strong biased orientation of TEs indicated by arrows are schematized.

Mentions: From these studies, it emerged that flam was not a classically defined gene producing messenger RNAs with large open reading frames able to encode proteins. By contrast, it had the potential to produce long, unidirectional, non-coding, precursor transcripts containing multiple TE families traversing the locus (Figure 3; Brennecke et al., 2007; Malone et al., 2009). Thus, although the reason why different lines might display different TE targeting remained elusive, it was then clear that the whole >180 kb of the flam locus could be required to generate piRNAs and to perform multiple TE surveillance.


History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

Goriaux C, Théron E, Brasset E, Vaury C - Front Genet (2014)

Molecular structure of the flam locus. The CI binding site, the transcription start site and the strong biased orientation of TEs indicated by arrows are schematized.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120762&req=5

Figure 3: Molecular structure of the flam locus. The CI binding site, the transcription start site and the strong biased orientation of TEs indicated by arrows are schematized.
Mentions: From these studies, it emerged that flam was not a classically defined gene producing messenger RNAs with large open reading frames able to encode proteins. By contrast, it had the potential to produce long, unidirectional, non-coding, precursor transcripts containing multiple TE families traversing the locus (Figure 3; Brennecke et al., 2007; Malone et al., 2009). Thus, although the reason why different lines might display different TE targeting remained elusive, it was then clear that the whole >180 kb of the flam locus could be required to generate piRNAs and to perform multiple TE surveillance.

Bottom Line: The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998.As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals.Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire GReD, Faculté de Médecine, Clermont Université - Université d'Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand France ; INSERM, U 1103, Clermont-Ferrand France ; CNRS, UMR 6293, Clermont-Ferrand France.

ABSTRACT
The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

No MeSH data available.