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Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior.

Friedel E, Koch SP, Wendt J, Heinz A, Deserno L, Schlagenhauf F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control.Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches.Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Selective devaluation paradigm according to Valentin et al. (2007). (A) Trial structure depicted for each condition during instrumental learning. On each trial subjects had to choose between two abstract stimuli, the chosen stimulus is then highlighted. The high-probability stimulus choice leads to a food outcome (chocolate or tomato) with a probability of p = 0.5 and to a common outcome (fruit tea) with p = 0.25. The low-probability stimulus choice never leads to food outcomes and in p = 0.25 to the common outcome. In the neutral condition, the high-probability stimulus choice leads to water with p = 0.75 and the low-probability stimulus choice to water with p = 0.25. (B) After instrumental training, subjects were invited to consume either chocolate (illustrated here) or tomato soup to satiety, resulting in a selective devaluation of the consumed outcome. Subjects then underwent the same “test” procedure in extinction (chocolate and tomato were no longer presented).
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Figure 1: Selective devaluation paradigm according to Valentin et al. (2007). (A) Trial structure depicted for each condition during instrumental learning. On each trial subjects had to choose between two abstract stimuli, the chosen stimulus is then highlighted. The high-probability stimulus choice leads to a food outcome (chocolate or tomato) with a probability of p = 0.5 and to a common outcome (fruit tea) with p = 0.25. The low-probability stimulus choice never leads to food outcomes and in p = 0.25 to the common outcome. In the neutral condition, the high-probability stimulus choice leads to water with p = 0.75 and the low-probability stimulus choice to water with p = 0.25. (B) After instrumental training, subjects were invited to consume either chocolate (illustrated here) or tomato soup to satiety, resulting in a selective devaluation of the consumed outcome. Subjects then underwent the same “test” procedure in extinction (chocolate and tomato were no longer presented).

Mentions: To test goal-directed vs. habitual behavior, we used a selective devaluation paradigm with liquid food rewards (Figures 1A,B; Valentin et al., 2007). The two liquid food rewards were chocolate milk and tomato juice. These foods were chosen because they can be administered in liquid form, are palatable at room temperature and are distinguishable in their flavor and texture to help facilitate sensory specific satiety effects. In addition we also used a tasteless neutral water solution and fruit tea as control. The food rewards were delivered by means of separate electronic syringe pumps (one for each liquid) positioned behind a small room divider (paravent). These pumps transferred the liquids to the subjects via plastic tubes (~6 mm diameter). The end of these tubes were held between the subject's lips like a straw and attached to the shoulder with a small adhesive tape while they were sitting in front of the computer screen performing the task.


Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior.

Friedel E, Koch SP, Wendt J, Heinz A, Deserno L, Schlagenhauf F - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Selective devaluation paradigm according to Valentin et al. (2007). (A) Trial structure depicted for each condition during instrumental learning. On each trial subjects had to choose between two abstract stimuli, the chosen stimulus is then highlighted. The high-probability stimulus choice leads to a food outcome (chocolate or tomato) with a probability of p = 0.5 and to a common outcome (fruit tea) with p = 0.25. The low-probability stimulus choice never leads to food outcomes and in p = 0.25 to the common outcome. In the neutral condition, the high-probability stimulus choice leads to water with p = 0.75 and the low-probability stimulus choice to water with p = 0.25. (B) After instrumental training, subjects were invited to consume either chocolate (illustrated here) or tomato soup to satiety, resulting in a selective devaluation of the consumed outcome. Subjects then underwent the same “test” procedure in extinction (chocolate and tomato were no longer presented).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120761&req=5

Figure 1: Selective devaluation paradigm according to Valentin et al. (2007). (A) Trial structure depicted for each condition during instrumental learning. On each trial subjects had to choose between two abstract stimuli, the chosen stimulus is then highlighted. The high-probability stimulus choice leads to a food outcome (chocolate or tomato) with a probability of p = 0.5 and to a common outcome (fruit tea) with p = 0.25. The low-probability stimulus choice never leads to food outcomes and in p = 0.25 to the common outcome. In the neutral condition, the high-probability stimulus choice leads to water with p = 0.75 and the low-probability stimulus choice to water with p = 0.25. (B) After instrumental training, subjects were invited to consume either chocolate (illustrated here) or tomato soup to satiety, resulting in a selective devaluation of the consumed outcome. Subjects then underwent the same “test” procedure in extinction (chocolate and tomato were no longer presented).
Mentions: To test goal-directed vs. habitual behavior, we used a selective devaluation paradigm with liquid food rewards (Figures 1A,B; Valentin et al., 2007). The two liquid food rewards were chocolate milk and tomato juice. These foods were chosen because they can be administered in liquid form, are palatable at room temperature and are distinguishable in their flavor and texture to help facilitate sensory specific satiety effects. In addition we also used a tasteless neutral water solution and fruit tea as control. The food rewards were delivered by means of separate electronic syringe pumps (one for each liquid) positioned behind a small room divider (paravent). These pumps transferred the liquids to the subjects via plastic tubes (~6 mm diameter). The end of these tubes were held between the subject's lips like a straw and attached to the shoulder with a small adhesive tape while they were sitting in front of the computer screen performing the task.

Bottom Line: More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control.Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches.Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus