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Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

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Example of stimulus images used in the control experiment. All images were in the frontal head orientation.
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fig9: Example of stimulus images used in the control experiment. All images were in the frontal head orientation.

Mentions: This interpretation suggests that the number of “direct gaze” responses would be similar between the whole-head and eye-region conditions if the uncertainty about head orientation was removed. Here, we explicitly tested this possibility by conducting a control experiment in which only the frontal (0°) head orientation was shown, thereby eliminating the uncertainty about head orientation. We chose the frontal head orientation because the difference in the number of direct responses was most pronounced in this condition in the main experiment. In addition, we included an eye-only version of the stimuli, as employed in Mareschal et al. (2013b), to examine the effect of including the nose bridge (see Figure 9).


Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Example of stimulus images used in the control experiment. All images were in the frontal head orientation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120707&req=5

fig9: Example of stimulus images used in the control experiment. All images were in the frontal head orientation.
Mentions: This interpretation suggests that the number of “direct gaze” responses would be similar between the whole-head and eye-region conditions if the uncertainty about head orientation was removed. Here, we explicitly tested this possibility by conducting a control experiment in which only the frontal (0°) head orientation was shown, thereby eliminating the uncertainty about head orientation. We chose the frontal head orientation because the difference in the number of direct responses was most pronounced in this condition in the main experiment. In addition, we included an eye-only version of the stimuli, as employed in Mareschal et al. (2013b), to examine the effect of including the nose bridge (see Figure 9).

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus