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Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Box plot summarizing individual subjects’ (n = 20) overall weighting of head orientation in the whole-head and eye-region conditions, and the inferred weighting of head orientation as a direct cue in the whole-head condition. The box covers the interquartile range and the median is indicated by the mark within the box. The whiskers represent the most extreme data value within 1.5 times the interquartile range. Outlier values are depicted as +.
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fig6: Box plot summarizing individual subjects’ (n = 20) overall weighting of head orientation in the whole-head and eye-region conditions, and the inferred weighting of head orientation as a direct cue in the whole-head condition. The box covers the interquartile range and the median is indicated by the mark within the box. The whiskers represent the most extreme data value within 1.5 times the interquartile range. Outlier values are depicted as +.

Mentions: Subjects’ reports of direction of gaze as leftward, direct, or rightward were recoded as follows: leftward = 0; direct = 0.5; rightward = 1. A proportion rightward score for presentations of each head orientation and eye deviation was calculated as the sum of recoded scores divided by the number of presentations. The following analysis was performed both on the data averaged across subjects (results shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5) and on the individual data (results shown in Figure 6).


Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Box plot summarizing individual subjects’ (n = 20) overall weighting of head orientation in the whole-head and eye-region conditions, and the inferred weighting of head orientation as a direct cue in the whole-head condition. The box covers the interquartile range and the median is indicated by the mark within the box. The whiskers represent the most extreme data value within 1.5 times the interquartile range. Outlier values are depicted as +.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120707&req=5

fig6: Box plot summarizing individual subjects’ (n = 20) overall weighting of head orientation in the whole-head and eye-region conditions, and the inferred weighting of head orientation as a direct cue in the whole-head condition. The box covers the interquartile range and the median is indicated by the mark within the box. The whiskers represent the most extreme data value within 1.5 times the interquartile range. Outlier values are depicted as +.
Mentions: Subjects’ reports of direction of gaze as leftward, direct, or rightward were recoded as follows: leftward = 0; direct = 0.5; rightward = 1. A proportion rightward score for presentations of each head orientation and eye deviation was calculated as the sum of recoded scores divided by the number of presentations. The following analysis was performed both on the data averaged across subjects (results shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5) and on the individual data (results shown in Figure 6).

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus