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Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

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Data from the whole-head condition averaged across subjects. (A) Proportion of direct responses as a function of eye deviation for each head orientation. (B) Logistic fits to the data recoded as proportion of rightward response. (C) Points of subjectively direct gaze derived from the fitted data together with the linear regression slope across head orientation. The gray area represents bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals and the error bar represents the standard deviation between subjects. (D) Effective weights of eye deviation and head orientation on perceived gaze direction.
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fig3: Data from the whole-head condition averaged across subjects. (A) Proportion of direct responses as a function of eye deviation for each head orientation. (B) Logistic fits to the data recoded as proportion of rightward response. (C) Points of subjectively direct gaze derived from the fitted data together with the linear regression slope across head orientation. The gray area represents bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals and the error bar represents the standard deviation between subjects. (D) Effective weights of eye deviation and head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Mentions: Subjects’ reports of direction of gaze as leftward, direct, or rightward were recoded as follows: leftward = 0; direct = 0.5; rightward = 1. A proportion rightward score for presentations of each head orientation and eye deviation was calculated as the sum of recoded scores divided by the number of presentations. The following analysis was performed both on the data averaged across subjects (results shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5) and on the individual data (results shown in Figure 6).


Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Data from the whole-head condition averaged across subjects. (A) Proportion of direct responses as a function of eye deviation for each head orientation. (B) Logistic fits to the data recoded as proportion of rightward response. (C) Points of subjectively direct gaze derived from the fitted data together with the linear regression slope across head orientation. The gray area represents bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals and the error bar represents the standard deviation between subjects. (D) Effective weights of eye deviation and head orientation on perceived gaze direction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120707&req=5

fig3: Data from the whole-head condition averaged across subjects. (A) Proportion of direct responses as a function of eye deviation for each head orientation. (B) Logistic fits to the data recoded as proportion of rightward response. (C) Points of subjectively direct gaze derived from the fitted data together with the linear regression slope across head orientation. The gray area represents bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals and the error bar represents the standard deviation between subjects. (D) Effective weights of eye deviation and head orientation on perceived gaze direction.
Mentions: Subjects’ reports of direction of gaze as leftward, direct, or rightward were recoded as follows: leftward = 0; direct = 0.5; rightward = 1. A proportion rightward score for presentations of each head orientation and eye deviation was calculated as the sum of recoded scores divided by the number of presentations. The following analysis was performed both on the data averaged across subjects (results shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5) and on the individual data (results shown in Figure 6).

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus