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Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

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Demonstration by Wollaston (From “On the Apparent Direction of Eyes in a Portrait,” by W. H. Wollaston, 1824, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 114, p. 256. In the public domain). From the drawing of a face oriented leftward with direct gaze (left), Wollaston produced another face by inserting the same eyes into a drawing of the same individual with his head oriented to the right (right). Although these two faces share identical eyes, the latter appears to be looking to the right of the viewer.
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fig1: Demonstration by Wollaston (From “On the Apparent Direction of Eyes in a Portrait,” by W. H. Wollaston, 1824, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 114, p. 256. In the public domain). From the drawing of a face oriented leftward with direct gaze (left), Wollaston produced another face by inserting the same eyes into a drawing of the same individual with his head oriented to the right (right). Although these two faces share identical eyes, the latter appears to be looking to the right of the viewer.

Mentions: Unlike Gibson and Pick (1963) and others (Anstis et al., 1969; Gamer & Hecht, 2007; Noll, 1976), Cline (1967) reported that gaze direction was constantly biased toward the head orientation (attractive effect) when the head was rotated rightward by 30°. Such an effect is easily observable in the demonstration by Wollaston (1824). From the drawing of a face oriented leftward with direct gaze (Figure 1, left), Wollaston produced another face by inserting the same eyes into a drawing of the same individual with his head oriented to the right (Figure 1, right). Wollaston noted that although the first figure appears to have direct gaze, the latter seems to be looking to the right of the viewer. A similar demonstration was provided by Gibson and Pick (1963, p. 338–339), in which the perceived gaze direction of schematic eyes varies depending whether the eyes are shown alone or in the context of an angled face. Gibson and Pick noted that, in the latter case, the perceived gaze direction is attracted toward the orientation of the face. Based on that demonstration, they proposed that, except for the special case of frontal head orientation, information given within the eyes is insufficient to determine the direction of gaze. These observations of an attractive effect have been supported by several psychophysical studies (e.g., Langton et al., 2004; Maruyama & Endo, 1983; Todorović, 2006, 2009). Thus, counter to the notion of Anstis et al. (1969) that the influence of head orientation on perceived gaze direction is determined by its effect on the visible part of the eye, the findings from these studies suggest that head orientation has a direct attractive influence on perceived direction of gaze.


Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Demonstration by Wollaston (From “On the Apparent Direction of Eyes in a Portrait,” by W. H. Wollaston, 1824, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 114, p. 256. In the public domain). From the drawing of a face oriented leftward with direct gaze (left), Wollaston produced another face by inserting the same eyes into a drawing of the same individual with his head oriented to the right (right). Although these two faces share identical eyes, the latter appears to be looking to the right of the viewer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120707&req=5

fig1: Demonstration by Wollaston (From “On the Apparent Direction of Eyes in a Portrait,” by W. H. Wollaston, 1824, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 114, p. 256. In the public domain). From the drawing of a face oriented leftward with direct gaze (left), Wollaston produced another face by inserting the same eyes into a drawing of the same individual with his head oriented to the right (right). Although these two faces share identical eyes, the latter appears to be looking to the right of the viewer.
Mentions: Unlike Gibson and Pick (1963) and others (Anstis et al., 1969; Gamer & Hecht, 2007; Noll, 1976), Cline (1967) reported that gaze direction was constantly biased toward the head orientation (attractive effect) when the head was rotated rightward by 30°. Such an effect is easily observable in the demonstration by Wollaston (1824). From the drawing of a face oriented leftward with direct gaze (Figure 1, left), Wollaston produced another face by inserting the same eyes into a drawing of the same individual with his head oriented to the right (Figure 1, right). Wollaston noted that although the first figure appears to have direct gaze, the latter seems to be looking to the right of the viewer. A similar demonstration was provided by Gibson and Pick (1963, p. 338–339), in which the perceived gaze direction of schematic eyes varies depending whether the eyes are shown alone or in the context of an angled face. Gibson and Pick noted that, in the latter case, the perceived gaze direction is attracted toward the orientation of the face. Based on that demonstration, they proposed that, except for the special case of frontal head orientation, information given within the eyes is insufficient to determine the direction of gaze. These observations of an attractive effect have been supported by several psychophysical studies (e.g., Langton et al., 2004; Maruyama & Endo, 1983; Todorović, 2006, 2009). Thus, counter to the notion of Anstis et al. (1969) that the influence of head orientation on perceived gaze direction is determined by its effect on the visible part of the eye, the findings from these studies suggest that head orientation has a direct attractive influence on perceived direction of gaze.

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus