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Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

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Illustration of 0° eye deviation (physically direct gaze) and the eye deviation corresponding to perceived direct gaze according to the weightings computed from the mean data across subjects for each head orientation in the whole-head and the eye-region display conditions.
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fig12: Illustration of 0° eye deviation (physically direct gaze) and the eye deviation corresponding to perceived direct gaze according to the weightings computed from the mean data across subjects for each head orientation in the whole-head and the eye-region display conditions.

Mentions: By comparing perceived gaze direction in the whole-head condition and in the eye-region condition, the current study revealed two routes whereby head orientation affects perceived gaze direction. In general, we found that lateral head rotation tends to have a repulsive effect on gaze perception, in which the perceived gaze direction is biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (e.g., the eyes might need to be deviated by +5° in a +30° rotated head to overcome the repulsive effect of the head and be seen as direct). The repulsive effect is consistent with the effect of head rotation on perceived gaze direction observed in previous studies that used real human faces or realistic 3D head models as stimuli (Anstis et al., 1969; Gamer & Hecht, 2007; Gibson & Pick, 1963; Noll, 1976). As pointed out by Anstis et al., turning the head with gaze fixed on a given point (e.g., directly ahead) changes the visible part of the eye on either side of the iris. As the head rotates to the right, for example, the relative amount of visible white (sclera) on the right side of the iris increases, just like when eye direction shifts toward the left (see Figure 12).


Dual-route model of the effect of head orientation on perceived gaze direction.

Otsuka Y, Mareschal I, Calder AJ, Clifford CW - J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform (2014)

Illustration of 0° eye deviation (physically direct gaze) and the eye deviation corresponding to perceived direct gaze according to the weightings computed from the mean data across subjects for each head orientation in the whole-head and the eye-region display conditions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120707&req=5

fig12: Illustration of 0° eye deviation (physically direct gaze) and the eye deviation corresponding to perceived direct gaze according to the weightings computed from the mean data across subjects for each head orientation in the whole-head and the eye-region display conditions.
Mentions: By comparing perceived gaze direction in the whole-head condition and in the eye-region condition, the current study revealed two routes whereby head orientation affects perceived gaze direction. In general, we found that lateral head rotation tends to have a repulsive effect on gaze perception, in which the perceived gaze direction is biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (e.g., the eyes might need to be deviated by +5° in a +30° rotated head to overcome the repulsive effect of the head and be seen as direct). The repulsive effect is consistent with the effect of head rotation on perceived gaze direction observed in previous studies that used real human faces or realistic 3D head models as stimuli (Anstis et al., 1969; Gamer & Hecht, 2007; Gibson & Pick, 1963; Noll, 1976). As pointed out by Anstis et al., turning the head with gaze fixed on a given point (e.g., directly ahead) changes the visible part of the eye on either side of the iris. As the head rotates to the right, for example, the relative amount of visible white (sclera) on the right side of the iris increases, just like when eye direction shifts toward the left (see Figure 12).

Bottom Line: We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect).Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes.In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Psychology, The University of Sydney.

ABSTRACT
Previous studies on gaze perception have identified 2 opposing effects of head orientation on perceived gaze direction-1 repulsive and the other attractive. However, the relationship between these 2 effects has remained unclear. By using a gaze categorization task, the current study examined the effect of head orientation on the perceived direction of gaze in a whole-head condition and an eye-region condition. We found that the perceived direction of gaze was generally biased in the opposite direction to head orientation (a repulsive effect). Importantly, the magnitude of the repulsive effect was more pronounced in the eye-region condition than in the whole-head condition. Based on these findings, we developed a dual-route model, which proposes that the 2 opposing effects of head orientation occur through 2 distinct routes. In the framework of this dual-route model, we explain and reconcile the findings from previous studies, and provide a functional account of attractive and repulsive effects and their interaction.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus