Limits...
Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake.

Cunningham TJ, Chambers AM, Payne JD - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged.These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness.The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology, Sleep, Stress, and Memory Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness. The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expectation × Valence × Scene component three-way interaction. *p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120689&req=5

Figure 2: Expectation × Valence × Scene component three-way interaction. *p < 0.05.

Mentions: Importantly, there was also a significant three-way interaction among valence, scene component, and instruction [F1,76 = 4.3, p = 0.04; see Figure 2] supporting our hypothesis that the expectation manipulation influenced the emotional memory trade-off effect. To probe this interaction further we created trade-off magnitude scores by calculating the difference between memory for objects and memory for their associated backgrounds, for both negative and neutral scenes (as described in Data Analysis). A 2 (valence: negative, neutral) × 2 (instruction: expected, unexpected) mixed ANOVA revealed a main effect of expectation [F1,78 = 5.0, p = 0.03]. There was also a significant two-way interaction of valence and instruction [F1,78 = 4.3, p = 0.04]. Independent sample t-tests on these scores on the combined sleep and wake groups revealed that this interaction was driven by more than a twofold increase in memory trade-off magnitude for negative scenes (objects vs. backgrounds) when participants expected the memory test compared to when it was unexpected [t(78) = 2.6, p = 0.01; see Figure 2, first and third clustered columns]. Concurrently, memory trade-off scores for neutral information remain the same across expectation conditions [t(78) = 0.76, p = 0.45].


Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake.

Cunningham TJ, Chambers AM, Payne JD - Front Psychol (2014)

Expectation × Valence × Scene component three-way interaction. *p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120689&req=5

Figure 2: Expectation × Valence × Scene component three-way interaction. *p < 0.05.
Mentions: Importantly, there was also a significant three-way interaction among valence, scene component, and instruction [F1,76 = 4.3, p = 0.04; see Figure 2] supporting our hypothesis that the expectation manipulation influenced the emotional memory trade-off effect. To probe this interaction further we created trade-off magnitude scores by calculating the difference between memory for objects and memory for their associated backgrounds, for both negative and neutral scenes (as described in Data Analysis). A 2 (valence: negative, neutral) × 2 (instruction: expected, unexpected) mixed ANOVA revealed a main effect of expectation [F1,78 = 5.0, p = 0.03]. There was also a significant two-way interaction of valence and instruction [F1,78 = 4.3, p = 0.04]. Independent sample t-tests on these scores on the combined sleep and wake groups revealed that this interaction was driven by more than a twofold increase in memory trade-off magnitude for negative scenes (objects vs. backgrounds) when participants expected the memory test compared to when it was unexpected [t(78) = 2.6, p = 0.01; see Figure 2, first and third clustered columns]. Concurrently, memory trade-off scores for neutral information remain the same across expectation conditions [t(78) = 0.76, p = 0.45].

Bottom Line: Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged.These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness.The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology, Sleep, Stress, and Memory Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN, USA.

ABSTRACT
Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues interact to benefit emotional memory consolidation during a delay of wakefulness. The sleeping brain, however, may automatically tag emotionally salient information as important, such that explicit instruction of an upcoming memory test does not further improve memory performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus