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The spinal cord is never at rest.

Eippert F, Tracey I - Elife (2014)

Bottom Line: Even when we are at rest, our spinal cords show spontaneous, yet well organised, fluctuations of activity that might reflect sensory and motor networks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Falk Eippert is in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom falk.eippert@ndcn.ox.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Resting-state signals in the human spinal cord.(A) Horizontal section of a brain (top) and a spinal cord (middle, bottom); the small size of the spinal cord makes it difficult to image neuronal activity. The spinal cord contains two ventral horns (one outlined in red) that are involved in motor function, and two dorsal horns (one outlined in green) that are involved in sensory function. (B) Barry et al. measured the correlation between spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI signal in the ventral horns (red traces; top) and the dorsal horns (green traces; bottom). This revealed that the ventral horns show a positive correlation with each other, as do the dorsal horns. However, there is no significant correlation between ventral and dorsal horns. This suggests that at rest, the spinal cord is intrinsically organised into two separate networks, corresponding to motor and sensory functions. (C) Possible mechanisms that could explain the spontaneous activity in the spinal cord include input from the peripheral nervous system (top), locally generated rhythms from the interneurons within spinal networks (middle), and ongoing communication between the brain and spinal cord (bottom).
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fig1: Resting-state signals in the human spinal cord.(A) Horizontal section of a brain (top) and a spinal cord (middle, bottom); the small size of the spinal cord makes it difficult to image neuronal activity. The spinal cord contains two ventral horns (one outlined in red) that are involved in motor function, and two dorsal horns (one outlined in green) that are involved in sensory function. (B) Barry et al. measured the correlation between spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI signal in the ventral horns (red traces; top) and the dorsal horns (green traces; bottom). This revealed that the ventral horns show a positive correlation with each other, as do the dorsal horns. However, there is no significant correlation between ventral and dorsal horns. This suggests that at rest, the spinal cord is intrinsically organised into two separate networks, corresponding to motor and sensory functions. (C) Possible mechanisms that could explain the spontaneous activity in the spinal cord include input from the peripheral nervous system (top), locally generated rhythms from the interneurons within spinal networks (middle), and ongoing communication between the brain and spinal cord (bottom).

Mentions: Performing fMRI of the spinal cord, however, is technically challenging for a number of reasons. In particular, the spinal cord is very small (around 12 mm in diameter; Figure 1A), and there are also various sources of noise that degrade the quality of the signal to a much greater degree than happens in brain imaging (Summers et al., 2014). Correspondingly, the first reports of spinal fMRI only occurred in the late 1990s (Yoshizawa et al., 1996; Stroman et al., 1999) and relatively few groups are currently undertaking such studies.Figure 1.Resting-state signals in the human spinal cord.


The spinal cord is never at rest.

Eippert F, Tracey I - Elife (2014)

Resting-state signals in the human spinal cord.(A) Horizontal section of a brain (top) and a spinal cord (middle, bottom); the small size of the spinal cord makes it difficult to image neuronal activity. The spinal cord contains two ventral horns (one outlined in red) that are involved in motor function, and two dorsal horns (one outlined in green) that are involved in sensory function. (B) Barry et al. measured the correlation between spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI signal in the ventral horns (red traces; top) and the dorsal horns (green traces; bottom). This revealed that the ventral horns show a positive correlation with each other, as do the dorsal horns. However, there is no significant correlation between ventral and dorsal horns. This suggests that at rest, the spinal cord is intrinsically organised into two separate networks, corresponding to motor and sensory functions. (C) Possible mechanisms that could explain the spontaneous activity in the spinal cord include input from the peripheral nervous system (top), locally generated rhythms from the interneurons within spinal networks (middle), and ongoing communication between the brain and spinal cord (bottom).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120650&req=5

fig1: Resting-state signals in the human spinal cord.(A) Horizontal section of a brain (top) and a spinal cord (middle, bottom); the small size of the spinal cord makes it difficult to image neuronal activity. The spinal cord contains two ventral horns (one outlined in red) that are involved in motor function, and two dorsal horns (one outlined in green) that are involved in sensory function. (B) Barry et al. measured the correlation between spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI signal in the ventral horns (red traces; top) and the dorsal horns (green traces; bottom). This revealed that the ventral horns show a positive correlation with each other, as do the dorsal horns. However, there is no significant correlation between ventral and dorsal horns. This suggests that at rest, the spinal cord is intrinsically organised into two separate networks, corresponding to motor and sensory functions. (C) Possible mechanisms that could explain the spontaneous activity in the spinal cord include input from the peripheral nervous system (top), locally generated rhythms from the interneurons within spinal networks (middle), and ongoing communication between the brain and spinal cord (bottom).
Mentions: Performing fMRI of the spinal cord, however, is technically challenging for a number of reasons. In particular, the spinal cord is very small (around 12 mm in diameter; Figure 1A), and there are also various sources of noise that degrade the quality of the signal to a much greater degree than happens in brain imaging (Summers et al., 2014). Correspondingly, the first reports of spinal fMRI only occurred in the late 1990s (Yoshizawa et al., 1996; Stroman et al., 1999) and relatively few groups are currently undertaking such studies.Figure 1.Resting-state signals in the human spinal cord.

Bottom Line: Even when we are at rest, our spinal cords show spontaneous, yet well organised, fluctuations of activity that might reflect sensory and motor networks.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Falk Eippert is in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom falk.eippert@ndcn.ox.ac.uk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus