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The impact of immediate verbal feedback on the improvement of swimming technique.

Zatoń K, Szczepan S - J Hum Kinet (2014)

Bottom Line: It results in a lower swimming velocity.The repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey range test demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between the two groups in terms of SL and swimming velocity.IVF brought about a 6.93% (Simi method) and a 5.09% (Hay method) increase in SL, as well as a 2.92% increase in swimming velocity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland, Department of Swimming.

ABSTRACT
The present research attempts to ascertain the impact of immediate verbal feedback (IVF) on modifications of stroke length (SL). In all swimming styles, stroke length is considered an essential kinematic parameter of the swimming cycle. It is important for swimming mechanics and energetics. If SL shortens while the stroke rate (SR) remains unchanged or decreases, the temporal-spatial structure of swimming is considered erroneous. It results in a lower swimming velocity. Our research included 64 subjects, who were divided into two groups: the experimental - E (n=32) and the control - C (n=32) groups. A pretest and a post-test were conducted. The subjects swam the front crawl over the test distance of 25m at Vmax. Only the E group subjects were provided with IVF aiming to increase their SL. All tests were filmed by two cameras (50 samples•s-1). The kinematic parameters of the swimming cycle were analyzed using the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software (SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D GmbH, Germany). The movement analysis allowed to determine the average horizontal swimming velocity over 15 meters. The repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey range test demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between the two groups in terms of SL and swimming velocity. IVF brought about a 6.93% (Simi method) and a 5.09% (Hay method) increase in SL, as well as a 2.92% increase in swimming velocity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

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f1-jhk-41-143: Measurement chain

Mentions: The actual spatial dimensions were defined using two coordinate systems. The first system was the 2m × 2m scale calibration frame. The calibration frame was placed vertically in the swimmer’s movement plane, in a way that did not disrupt the trials. Since the camera lens axis was perpendicular to the swimmers, the camera eye captured the largest calibration system possible. Markers with contrasting colors to the ambient environment placed on both upper limbs in the radiocarpal joint axis and on the center of the head (Plagenhoef, 1971) enabled us to follow the displacement of the subject’s body. The center of the radiocarpal joint corresponds to the midpoint of the distance between the styloid process of the radius and the lentiform bone, while the center of the head in the saggital plane is a point on the temple near the auditory meatus (Zatsiorsky, 1998). Another coordinate system, comprised of two markers with contrasting colors to the ambient environment, was placed on the 5th and the 20th meter lines of the pool to delineate the 15-meter clean swimming area. Each trial was executed in homogenous conditions – temperature of 25–28°C, illumination of 600 lux, in accordance with FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) guidelines. Figure 1 illustrates the experiment.


The impact of immediate verbal feedback on the improvement of swimming technique.

Zatoń K, Szczepan S - J Hum Kinet (2014)

Measurement chain
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4120447&req=5

f1-jhk-41-143: Measurement chain
Mentions: The actual spatial dimensions were defined using two coordinate systems. The first system was the 2m × 2m scale calibration frame. The calibration frame was placed vertically in the swimmer’s movement plane, in a way that did not disrupt the trials. Since the camera lens axis was perpendicular to the swimmers, the camera eye captured the largest calibration system possible. Markers with contrasting colors to the ambient environment placed on both upper limbs in the radiocarpal joint axis and on the center of the head (Plagenhoef, 1971) enabled us to follow the displacement of the subject’s body. The center of the radiocarpal joint corresponds to the midpoint of the distance between the styloid process of the radius and the lentiform bone, while the center of the head in the saggital plane is a point on the temple near the auditory meatus (Zatsiorsky, 1998). Another coordinate system, comprised of two markers with contrasting colors to the ambient environment, was placed on the 5th and the 20th meter lines of the pool to delineate the 15-meter clean swimming area. Each trial was executed in homogenous conditions – temperature of 25–28°C, illumination of 600 lux, in accordance with FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) guidelines. Figure 1 illustrates the experiment.

Bottom Line: It results in a lower swimming velocity.The repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey range test demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between the two groups in terms of SL and swimming velocity.IVF brought about a 6.93% (Simi method) and a 5.09% (Hay method) increase in SL, as well as a 2.92% increase in swimming velocity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland, Department of Swimming.

ABSTRACT
The present research attempts to ascertain the impact of immediate verbal feedback (IVF) on modifications of stroke length (SL). In all swimming styles, stroke length is considered an essential kinematic parameter of the swimming cycle. It is important for swimming mechanics and energetics. If SL shortens while the stroke rate (SR) remains unchanged or decreases, the temporal-spatial structure of swimming is considered erroneous. It results in a lower swimming velocity. Our research included 64 subjects, who were divided into two groups: the experimental - E (n=32) and the control - C (n=32) groups. A pretest and a post-test were conducted. The subjects swam the front crawl over the test distance of 25m at Vmax. Only the E group subjects were provided with IVF aiming to increase their SL. All tests were filmed by two cameras (50 samples•s-1). The kinematic parameters of the swimming cycle were analyzed using the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software (SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D GmbH, Germany). The movement analysis allowed to determine the average horizontal swimming velocity over 15 meters. The repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey range test demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between the two groups in terms of SL and swimming velocity. IVF brought about a 6.93% (Simi method) and a 5.09% (Hay method) increase in SL, as well as a 2.92% increase in swimming velocity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus