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Genome-wide transcriptome and functional analysis of two contrasting genotypes reveals key genes for cadmium tolerance in barley.

Cao F, Chen F, Sun H, Zhang G, Chen ZH, Wu F - BMC Genomics (2014)

Bottom Line: To adapt to Cd-induced deleterious effects, plants have evolved sophisticated defence mechanisms.Meanwhile, biochemical and physiological analysis of enzyme (ATPase and chitinase), phytohormone (ethylene), ion distribution and transport (Cd, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), ABC transporter) demonstrated that significantly larger Cd-induced increases of those components in Weisuobuzhi than those in Dong17.Our findings suggest that combining microarray, physiological and biochemical analysis has provided valuable insights towards a novel integrated molecular mechanism of Cd tolerance in barley.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P,R, China. z.chen@uws.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is a severe detrimental environmental pollutant. To adapt to Cd-induced deleterious effects, plants have evolved sophisticated defence mechanisms. In this study, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the mechanisms of Cd tolerance using two barley genotypes with distinct Cd tolerance.

Results: Microarray expression profiling revealed that 91 genes were up-regulated by Cd in Cd-tolerant genotype Weisuobuzhi and simultaneously down-regulated or non-changed in Cd-sensitive Dong17, and 692 genes showed no change in Weisuobuzhi but down-regulated in Dong17. Novel genes that may play significant roles in Cd tolerance were mainly via generating protectants such as catalase against reactive oxygen species, Cd compartmentalization (e.g. phytochelatin-synthase and vacuolar ATPase), and defence response and DNA replication (e.g. chitinase and histones). Other 156 up-regulated genes in both genotypes also included those encoding proteins related to stress and defence responses, and metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification pathways. Meanwhile, biochemical and physiological analysis of enzyme (ATPase and chitinase), phytohormone (ethylene), ion distribution and transport (Cd, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), ABC transporter) demonstrated that significantly larger Cd-induced increases of those components in Weisuobuzhi than those in Dong17. In addition, Cd-induced DNA damage was more pronounced in Dong17 than that in Weisuobuzhi.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that combining microarray, physiological and biochemical analysis has provided valuable insights towards a novel integrated molecular mechanism of Cd tolerance in barley. The higher expression genes in Cd tolerant genotype could be used for transgenic overexpression in sensitive genotypes of barley or other cereal crops for elevating tolerance to Cd stress.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Integrated schematic diagram of the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance in barley. Genes labelled with red, grey and green squares (Weisuobuzhi) circles (Dong17) are up-regulated, not changed and down-regulated by 5 μM Cd treatment, respectively. ABA, Abscisic acid; AE protein, Anion exchange protein; CAPs, Clathrin-associated protein; CAM, calmodulin; CAT; Catalase isozyme 2; CW, Cell wall; DNA BP, DNA binding protein; DNA MTase, DNA methyltransferase; DNA Pol, DNA polymerase; ET, Ethylene; FNR, Ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductases; GH, Glycosyl hydrolase; GST, Glutathione transferase; GT, Glycosyl transferase; HSP, Heat shock protein; HSP TF, Heat shock transcription factor; IDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase; IRK, Inwardly rectifying potassium channel; JA, jasmonate; LTP, Lipid transfer protein; MDH, Malate-dehydrogenase; NRaT, Nitrate transporter; NRiT, Nitrite transport protein; ORC subunit 4, Origin recognition complex subunit 4; PAE, Pectinacetylesterase; PC, phytochelatin; SA, Salicylate; SAP, Senescence-associated protein; TFIID, Transcription initiation Factor TFIID; TLP, Thaumatin-like proteins; V-ATP synthase, Vacuolar ATP synthase; VT ATPase, Vesicle transfer ATPase.
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Fig7: Integrated schematic diagram of the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance in barley. Genes labelled with red, grey and green squares (Weisuobuzhi) circles (Dong17) are up-regulated, not changed and down-regulated by 5 μM Cd treatment, respectively. ABA, Abscisic acid; AE protein, Anion exchange protein; CAPs, Clathrin-associated protein; CAM, calmodulin; CAT; Catalase isozyme 2; CW, Cell wall; DNA BP, DNA binding protein; DNA MTase, DNA methyltransferase; DNA Pol, DNA polymerase; ET, Ethylene; FNR, Ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductases; GH, Glycosyl hydrolase; GST, Glutathione transferase; GT, Glycosyl transferase; HSP, Heat shock protein; HSP TF, Heat shock transcription factor; IDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase; IRK, Inwardly rectifying potassium channel; JA, jasmonate; LTP, Lipid transfer protein; MDH, Malate-dehydrogenase; NRaT, Nitrate transporter; NRiT, Nitrite transport protein; ORC subunit 4, Origin recognition complex subunit 4; PAE, Pectinacetylesterase; PC, phytochelatin; SA, Salicylate; SAP, Senescence-associated protein; TFIID, Transcription initiation Factor TFIID; TLP, Thaumatin-like proteins; V-ATP synthase, Vacuolar ATP synthase; VT ATPase, Vesicle transfer ATPase.

Mentions: In barley, no molecular evaluation of Cd tolerance mechanisms has been fully explored so far. This study used large-scale transcript profiling to examine cellular processes affected by Cd stress in leaves of Cd-tolerant Weisuobuzhi and Cd-sensitive Dong17. A number of key genes have been shown to be induced or repressed differently in the two contrasting barley genotypes under Cd stress. Based on these identified Cd-responsive genes, we propose an integrated schematic diagram of the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance and adaptation (Figure 7) and a specific model for compartmentalization (Additional file 13: Figure S3), which may provide novel clues towards the characterisation of molecular mechanisms underlying Cd tolerance in barley.Figure 7


Genome-wide transcriptome and functional analysis of two contrasting genotypes reveals key genes for cadmium tolerance in barley.

Cao F, Chen F, Sun H, Zhang G, Chen ZH, Wu F - BMC Genomics (2014)

Integrated schematic diagram of the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance in barley. Genes labelled with red, grey and green squares (Weisuobuzhi) circles (Dong17) are up-regulated, not changed and down-regulated by 5 μM Cd treatment, respectively. ABA, Abscisic acid; AE protein, Anion exchange protein; CAPs, Clathrin-associated protein; CAM, calmodulin; CAT; Catalase isozyme 2; CW, Cell wall; DNA BP, DNA binding protein; DNA MTase, DNA methyltransferase; DNA Pol, DNA polymerase; ET, Ethylene; FNR, Ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductases; GH, Glycosyl hydrolase; GST, Glutathione transferase; GT, Glycosyl transferase; HSP, Heat shock protein; HSP TF, Heat shock transcription factor; IDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase; IRK, Inwardly rectifying potassium channel; JA, jasmonate; LTP, Lipid transfer protein; MDH, Malate-dehydrogenase; NRaT, Nitrate transporter; NRiT, Nitrite transport protein; ORC subunit 4, Origin recognition complex subunit 4; PAE, Pectinacetylesterase; PC, phytochelatin; SA, Salicylate; SAP, Senescence-associated protein; TFIID, Transcription initiation Factor TFIID; TLP, Thaumatin-like proteins; V-ATP synthase, Vacuolar ATP synthase; VT ATPase, Vesicle transfer ATPase.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4117959&req=5

Fig7: Integrated schematic diagram of the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance in barley. Genes labelled with red, grey and green squares (Weisuobuzhi) circles (Dong17) are up-regulated, not changed and down-regulated by 5 μM Cd treatment, respectively. ABA, Abscisic acid; AE protein, Anion exchange protein; CAPs, Clathrin-associated protein; CAM, calmodulin; CAT; Catalase isozyme 2; CW, Cell wall; DNA BP, DNA binding protein; DNA MTase, DNA methyltransferase; DNA Pol, DNA polymerase; ET, Ethylene; FNR, Ferredoxin NADP(H) oxidoreductases; GH, Glycosyl hydrolase; GST, Glutathione transferase; GT, Glycosyl transferase; HSP, Heat shock protein; HSP TF, Heat shock transcription factor; IDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase; IRK, Inwardly rectifying potassium channel; JA, jasmonate; LTP, Lipid transfer protein; MDH, Malate-dehydrogenase; NRaT, Nitrate transporter; NRiT, Nitrite transport protein; ORC subunit 4, Origin recognition complex subunit 4; PAE, Pectinacetylesterase; PC, phytochelatin; SA, Salicylate; SAP, Senescence-associated protein; TFIID, Transcription initiation Factor TFIID; TLP, Thaumatin-like proteins; V-ATP synthase, Vacuolar ATP synthase; VT ATPase, Vesicle transfer ATPase.
Mentions: In barley, no molecular evaluation of Cd tolerance mechanisms has been fully explored so far. This study used large-scale transcript profiling to examine cellular processes affected by Cd stress in leaves of Cd-tolerant Weisuobuzhi and Cd-sensitive Dong17. A number of key genes have been shown to be induced or repressed differently in the two contrasting barley genotypes under Cd stress. Based on these identified Cd-responsive genes, we propose an integrated schematic diagram of the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance and adaptation (Figure 7) and a specific model for compartmentalization (Additional file 13: Figure S3), which may provide novel clues towards the characterisation of molecular mechanisms underlying Cd tolerance in barley.Figure 7

Bottom Line: To adapt to Cd-induced deleterious effects, plants have evolved sophisticated defence mechanisms.Meanwhile, biochemical and physiological analysis of enzyme (ATPase and chitinase), phytohormone (ethylene), ion distribution and transport (Cd, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), ABC transporter) demonstrated that significantly larger Cd-induced increases of those components in Weisuobuzhi than those in Dong17.Our findings suggest that combining microarray, physiological and biochemical analysis has provided valuable insights towards a novel integrated molecular mechanism of Cd tolerance in barley.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, P,R, China. z.chen@uws.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is a severe detrimental environmental pollutant. To adapt to Cd-induced deleterious effects, plants have evolved sophisticated defence mechanisms. In this study, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the mechanisms of Cd tolerance using two barley genotypes with distinct Cd tolerance.

Results: Microarray expression profiling revealed that 91 genes were up-regulated by Cd in Cd-tolerant genotype Weisuobuzhi and simultaneously down-regulated or non-changed in Cd-sensitive Dong17, and 692 genes showed no change in Weisuobuzhi but down-regulated in Dong17. Novel genes that may play significant roles in Cd tolerance were mainly via generating protectants such as catalase against reactive oxygen species, Cd compartmentalization (e.g. phytochelatin-synthase and vacuolar ATPase), and defence response and DNA replication (e.g. chitinase and histones). Other 156 up-regulated genes in both genotypes also included those encoding proteins related to stress and defence responses, and metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification pathways. Meanwhile, biochemical and physiological analysis of enzyme (ATPase and chitinase), phytohormone (ethylene), ion distribution and transport (Cd, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), ABC transporter) demonstrated that significantly larger Cd-induced increases of those components in Weisuobuzhi than those in Dong17. In addition, Cd-induced DNA damage was more pronounced in Dong17 than that in Weisuobuzhi.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that combining microarray, physiological and biochemical analysis has provided valuable insights towards a novel integrated molecular mechanism of Cd tolerance in barley. The higher expression genes in Cd tolerant genotype could be used for transgenic overexpression in sensitive genotypes of barley or other cereal crops for elevating tolerance to Cd stress.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus