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Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae).

Montory JA, Pechenik JA, Diederich CM, Chaparro OR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae).The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24.Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Mención Ecología y Evolución, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

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Crepipatella peruviana: Effect of salinity exposition on clearance rate of early veligers.Each bar represents means and SD (total n = 6 replicates per treatments, with 10 veligers per replicate). Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p<0.05).
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pone-0103820-g009: Crepipatella peruviana: Effect of salinity exposition on clearance rate of early veligers.Each bar represents means and SD (total n = 6 replicates per treatments, with 10 veligers per replicate). Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p<0.05).

Mentions: The mean CR for control veligers (salinity of 32) (0.049±0.011 mL h−1 ind−1) was not significantly different from that of individuals exposed to 25 (0.036±0.016 mL h−1 ind−1). However, the mean CR of control larvae was significantly higher (one-way ANOVA, F(3,24) = 29.7; p = 0.003) by approximately 300% than that of individuals exposed to salinities of 15 and 20 (Figure 9).


Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae).

Montory JA, Pechenik JA, Diederich CM, Chaparro OR - PLoS ONE (2014)

Crepipatella peruviana: Effect of salinity exposition on clearance rate of early veligers.Each bar represents means and SD (total n = 6 replicates per treatments, with 10 veligers per replicate). Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p<0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4117565&req=5

pone-0103820-g009: Crepipatella peruviana: Effect of salinity exposition on clearance rate of early veligers.Each bar represents means and SD (total n = 6 replicates per treatments, with 10 veligers per replicate). Different letters above the bars indicate significant differences (p<0.05).
Mentions: The mean CR for control veligers (salinity of 32) (0.049±0.011 mL h−1 ind−1) was not significantly different from that of individuals exposed to 25 (0.036±0.016 mL h−1 ind−1). However, the mean CR of control larvae was significantly higher (one-way ANOVA, F(3,24) = 29.7; p = 0.003) by approximately 300% than that of individuals exposed to salinities of 15 and 20 (Figure 9).

Bottom Line: Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae).The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24.Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Mención Ecología y Evolución, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

ABSTRACT
Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus