Calcium ions and osteoclastogenesis initiate the induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs.
Bottom Line: Osteoclastic inhibition yielded minimal, if any, bone formation by induction. 7% HA/CC pre-loaded with the Ca(++) channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride strongly inhibited the induction of bone formation.Down-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) together with up-regulation of Noggin genes correlated with limited bone formation in 7% HA/CC pre-loaded with either verapamil or zoledronate, indicating that the induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs is via the BMPs pathway.The spontaneous induction of bone formation is initiated by a local peak of Ca(++) activating stem cell differentiation and the induction of bone formation.
Affiliation: Bone Research Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Angiogenesis correlated with type IV collagen up-regulation irrespective of the treatment modalities (Fig. 3). 7% HA/CC untreated controls showed pronounced capillary sprouting and vascular invasion within the peripheral macroporous spaces (Fig. 2A–C). Morphogenesis and tissue patterning of collagenous condensations were well advanced on day 15 (Fig. 2B and C) with remodelling and further development on day 60 (Fig. 2D–F). Areas with prominent angiogenesis showed a pronounced capillary sprouting and invasion with hypercellularity (Fig. 2B and C). Paravascular pericytic cells showed enlarged hyper-chromatic nuclei with several cells migrating between the vascular compartment and the paravascular extracellular matrix (Fig. 2C).
Affiliation: Bone Research Laboratory, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.