Limits...
Age and date for early arrival of the Acheulian in Europe (Barranc de la Boella, la Canonja, Spain).

Vallverdú J, Saladié P, Rosas A, Huguet R, Cáceres I, Mosquera M, Garcia-Tabernero A, Estalrrich A, Lozano-Fernández I, Pineda-Alcalá A, Carrancho Á, Villalaín JJ, Bourlès D, Braucher R, Lebatard A, Vilalta J, Esteban-Nadal M, Bennàsar ML, Bastir M, López-Polín L, Ollé A, Vergés JM, Ros-Montoya S, Martínez-Navarro B, García A, Martinell J, Expósito I, Burjachs F, Agustí J, Carbonell E - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record.Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later.However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), Tarragona, Spain; Àrea de Prehistòria, Departament d'Història i Història de l'Art, Facultat de Lletres. Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Tarragona, Spain; Unit associated to Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Departamento de Paleobiología. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN), Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The first arrivals of hominin populations into Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene are currently considered to have occurred as short and poorly dated biological dispersions. Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record. Here, we report on the Barranc de la Boella site which has yielded a lithic assemblage dating to ∼1 million years ago that includes large cutting tools (LCT). We argue that distinct technological traditions coexisted in the Iberian archaeological repertoires of the late Early Pleistocene age in a similar way to the earliest sub-Saharan African artefact assemblages. These differences between stone tool assemblages may be attributed to the different chronologies of hominin dispersal events. The archaeological record of Barranc de la Boella completes the geographical distribution of LCT assemblages across southern Eurasia during the EMPT (Early-Middle Pleistocene Transition, circa 942 to 641 kyr). Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later. However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place.

Show MeSH
Orthogonal NRM demagnetization plots for representative thermal (A, C to -I) and alternating (B) field demagnetized samples.Directions are projected in geographic coordinates. Solid (open) points indicate projections of vector endpoints onto the horizontal (vertical) plane N-S. Sample codes and stratigraphic units are also indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116235&req=5

pone-0103634-g003: Orthogonal NRM demagnetization plots for representative thermal (A, C to -I) and alternating (B) field demagnetized samples.Directions are projected in geographic coordinates. Solid (open) points indicate projections of vector endpoints onto the horizontal (vertical) plane N-S. Sample codes and stratigraphic units are also indicated.

Mentions: In a large number of samples, the characteristic component was isolated after removing a viscous component by heating up to 200°C or applying a peak alternating field of 12 mT (Figures 3 A, B, D, G, H and I). The maximum unblocking temperature for this component varied. In some cases it was close to the Curie temperature of magnetite (Figures 3 G and H). In others, the unblocking temperature spectrum reached temperatures of over 600°C, indicating that hematite was involved in the magnetization (Figures 3 A, C and I). The demagnetization diagrams represented in Figures 3 A and 4 B correspond to the thermal and AF demagnetization of two samples from the same core. In both cases the ChRM shows a clear reverse polarity. AF demagnetization (Figure 3 B) indicates that this directional component is carried by low-intermediate coercivity (magnetite and/or maghemite) and high coercivity (hematite) mineral phases. Thermal demagnetization (Figure 3 A) indicated that the ChRM had unblocking temperatures of over 640°C, confirming the contribution of hematite. Occasionally, a large part of the NRM (70%) was destroyed at temperatures around 300°C (Figures 3 C, E and F). A cluster of directions defining a clear polarity was seen above this temperature.


Age and date for early arrival of the Acheulian in Europe (Barranc de la Boella, la Canonja, Spain).

Vallverdú J, Saladié P, Rosas A, Huguet R, Cáceres I, Mosquera M, Garcia-Tabernero A, Estalrrich A, Lozano-Fernández I, Pineda-Alcalá A, Carrancho Á, Villalaín JJ, Bourlès D, Braucher R, Lebatard A, Vilalta J, Esteban-Nadal M, Bennàsar ML, Bastir M, López-Polín L, Ollé A, Vergés JM, Ros-Montoya S, Martínez-Navarro B, García A, Martinell J, Expósito I, Burjachs F, Agustí J, Carbonell E - PLoS ONE (2014)

Orthogonal NRM demagnetization plots for representative thermal (A, C to -I) and alternating (B) field demagnetized samples.Directions are projected in geographic coordinates. Solid (open) points indicate projections of vector endpoints onto the horizontal (vertical) plane N-S. Sample codes and stratigraphic units are also indicated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116235&req=5

pone-0103634-g003: Orthogonal NRM demagnetization plots for representative thermal (A, C to -I) and alternating (B) field demagnetized samples.Directions are projected in geographic coordinates. Solid (open) points indicate projections of vector endpoints onto the horizontal (vertical) plane N-S. Sample codes and stratigraphic units are also indicated.
Mentions: In a large number of samples, the characteristic component was isolated after removing a viscous component by heating up to 200°C or applying a peak alternating field of 12 mT (Figures 3 A, B, D, G, H and I). The maximum unblocking temperature for this component varied. In some cases it was close to the Curie temperature of magnetite (Figures 3 G and H). In others, the unblocking temperature spectrum reached temperatures of over 600°C, indicating that hematite was involved in the magnetization (Figures 3 A, C and I). The demagnetization diagrams represented in Figures 3 A and 4 B correspond to the thermal and AF demagnetization of two samples from the same core. In both cases the ChRM shows a clear reverse polarity. AF demagnetization (Figure 3 B) indicates that this directional component is carried by low-intermediate coercivity (magnetite and/or maghemite) and high coercivity (hematite) mineral phases. Thermal demagnetization (Figure 3 A) indicated that the ChRM had unblocking temperatures of over 640°C, confirming the contribution of hematite. Occasionally, a large part of the NRM (70%) was destroyed at temperatures around 300°C (Figures 3 C, E and F). A cluster of directions defining a clear polarity was seen above this temperature.

Bottom Line: Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record.Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later.However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), Tarragona, Spain; Àrea de Prehistòria, Departament d'Història i Història de l'Art, Facultat de Lletres. Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Tarragona, Spain; Unit associated to Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Departamento de Paleobiología. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN), Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The first arrivals of hominin populations into Eurasia during the Early Pleistocene are currently considered to have occurred as short and poorly dated biological dispersions. Questions as to the tempo and mode of these early prehistoric settlements have given rise to debates concerning the taxonomic significance of the lithic assemblages, as trace fossils, and the geographical distribution of the technological traditions found in the Lower Palaeolithic record. Here, we report on the Barranc de la Boella site which has yielded a lithic assemblage dating to ∼1 million years ago that includes large cutting tools (LCT). We argue that distinct technological traditions coexisted in the Iberian archaeological repertoires of the late Early Pleistocene age in a similar way to the earliest sub-Saharan African artefact assemblages. These differences between stone tool assemblages may be attributed to the different chronologies of hominin dispersal events. The archaeological record of Barranc de la Boella completes the geographical distribution of LCT assemblages across southern Eurasia during the EMPT (Early-Middle Pleistocene Transition, circa 942 to 641 kyr). Up to now, chronology of the earliest European LCT assemblages is based on the abundant Palaeolithic record found in terrace river sequences which have been dated to the end of the EMPT and later. However, the findings at Barranc de la Boella suggest that early LCT lithic assemblages appeared in the SW of Europe during earlier hominin dispersal episodes before the definitive colonization of temperate Eurasia took place.

Show MeSH