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Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

Rakotoarinivo M, Dransfield J, Bachman SP, Moat J, Baker WJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk.Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves.Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with local community engagement are essential for the survival of Madagascar's palms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kew Madagascar Conservation Centre, Ambodivoanjo Ivandry, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

ABSTRACT
The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with local community engagement are essential for the survival of Madagascar's palms.

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Summary of the 2012 IUCN Red List Assessments of Madagascar Palms (see table 2).IUCN Red List categories: Extinct in the Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DD) [31].
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pone-0103684-g002: Summary of the 2012 IUCN Red List Assessments of Madagascar Palms (see table 2).IUCN Red List categories: Extinct in the Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DD) [31].

Mentions: The results of our complete assessment of the conservation status of all known Madagascar palms are summarised in Table 2 and Figure 2, with a detailed break-down given in Table 3. Of the data sufficient species (179), we found that 149 (78%) are classified as threatened (CR, EN or VU). Thirteen species were not data sufficient and were thus rated as DD. Data on the current status of these species were inadequate to complete an assessment primarily because most were known only from the type collection and have not been observed for many years. Taking into account the 13 DD species, we estimated ‘lower’, ‘best estimate’ (‘mid-point’) and ‘upper’ bounds of the percentage of threatened species [52], which were 78%, 83% and 84% respectively. The lower bound treats all DD species as unthreatened, whereas the upper bound assumes that all are threatened. The best estimate assumes that the same fraction of DD species are threatened as was found for data sufficient species. A total of 14 species were listed as NT, which gives a total of 163 (91%) species considered to be of elevated conservation concern. Only 16 species were listed as LC.


Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

Rakotoarinivo M, Dransfield J, Bachman SP, Moat J, Baker WJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Summary of the 2012 IUCN Red List Assessments of Madagascar Palms (see table 2).IUCN Red List categories: Extinct in the Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DD) [31].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116232&req=5

pone-0103684-g002: Summary of the 2012 IUCN Red List Assessments of Madagascar Palms (see table 2).IUCN Red List categories: Extinct in the Wild (EW), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DD) [31].
Mentions: The results of our complete assessment of the conservation status of all known Madagascar palms are summarised in Table 2 and Figure 2, with a detailed break-down given in Table 3. Of the data sufficient species (179), we found that 149 (78%) are classified as threatened (CR, EN or VU). Thirteen species were not data sufficient and were thus rated as DD. Data on the current status of these species were inadequate to complete an assessment primarily because most were known only from the type collection and have not been observed for many years. Taking into account the 13 DD species, we estimated ‘lower’, ‘best estimate’ (‘mid-point’) and ‘upper’ bounds of the percentage of threatened species [52], which were 78%, 83% and 84% respectively. The lower bound treats all DD species as unthreatened, whereas the upper bound assumes that all are threatened. The best estimate assumes that the same fraction of DD species are threatened as was found for data sufficient species. A total of 14 species were listed as NT, which gives a total of 163 (91%) species considered to be of elevated conservation concern. Only 16 species were listed as LC.

Bottom Line: Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk.Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves.Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with local community engagement are essential for the survival of Madagascar's palms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kew Madagascar Conservation Centre, Ambodivoanjo Ivandry, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

ABSTRACT
The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with local community engagement are essential for the survival of Madagascar's palms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus