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Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico.

Sunny A, Monroy-Vilchis O, Reyna-Valencia C, Zarco-González MM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure.In addition, we found slight genetic barriers.We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Estación Biológica Sierra Nanchititla, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México.

ABSTRACT
The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Study site map with sampling locations (A1–D6).The geographical representation of the genetic clusters obtained by GENELAND are: orange-D1, green-D2 and white-D3–D6). The red lines G1 and G2 are genetic barriers found with the software BARRIER. Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees constructed using A) ASD (Goldstein et al. 1995a), B) δµ2 (Goldstein et al. 1995b) and C) DSW (Shriver et al. 1995) display genetic distances. Bootstrap values are shown along branches and pie chart colors represents the proportions of the three genetic demes assigned by the software STRUCTURE in each deme.
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pone-0103595-g001: Study site map with sampling locations (A1–D6).The geographical representation of the genetic clusters obtained by GENELAND are: orange-D1, green-D2 and white-D3–D6). The red lines G1 and G2 are genetic barriers found with the software BARRIER. Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees constructed using A) ASD (Goldstein et al. 1995a), B) δµ2 (Goldstein et al. 1995b) and C) DSW (Shriver et al. 1995) display genetic distances. Bootstrap values are shown along branches and pie chart colors represents the proportions of the three genetic demes assigned by the software STRUCTURE in each deme.

Mentions: Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl National Park (IPNP) is located in Central Mexico, near Mexico City, The geographical coordinates are 19°21′09″N, 98°40′11″W and 19°35′25″N, 98°66′97″ W, with an altitude of 4,130 masl (Fig. 1). Sampling was in two tributaries separated by 0.56 km that flow into the same river after 0.68 km considering a linear distance from the spring of the tributaries. These tributaries flow over plains and gentle slopes, with pools approximately 5 m from each other. The principal vegetation type outside the tributaries are small alpine grassland (Muhlenbergia sp.) surrounded by forest (Pinus hartwegii and Abies religiosa).


Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico.

Sunny A, Monroy-Vilchis O, Reyna-Valencia C, Zarco-González MM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Study site map with sampling locations (A1–D6).The geographical representation of the genetic clusters obtained by GENELAND are: orange-D1, green-D2 and white-D3–D6). The red lines G1 and G2 are genetic barriers found with the software BARRIER. Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees constructed using A) ASD (Goldstein et al. 1995a), B) δµ2 (Goldstein et al. 1995b) and C) DSW (Shriver et al. 1995) display genetic distances. Bootstrap values are shown along branches and pie chart colors represents the proportions of the three genetic demes assigned by the software STRUCTURE in each deme.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116214&req=5

pone-0103595-g001: Study site map with sampling locations (A1–D6).The geographical representation of the genetic clusters obtained by GENELAND are: orange-D1, green-D2 and white-D3–D6). The red lines G1 and G2 are genetic barriers found with the software BARRIER. Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees constructed using A) ASD (Goldstein et al. 1995a), B) δµ2 (Goldstein et al. 1995b) and C) DSW (Shriver et al. 1995) display genetic distances. Bootstrap values are shown along branches and pie chart colors represents the proportions of the three genetic demes assigned by the software STRUCTURE in each deme.
Mentions: Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl National Park (IPNP) is located in Central Mexico, near Mexico City, The geographical coordinates are 19°21′09″N, 98°40′11″W and 19°35′25″N, 98°66′97″ W, with an altitude of 4,130 masl (Fig. 1). Sampling was in two tributaries separated by 0.56 km that flow into the same river after 0.68 km considering a linear distance from the spring of the tributaries. These tributaries flow over plains and gentle slopes, with pools approximately 5 m from each other. The principal vegetation type outside the tributaries are small alpine grassland (Muhlenbergia sp.) surrounded by forest (Pinus hartwegii and Abies religiosa).

Bottom Line: We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure.In addition, we found slight genetic barriers.We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Estación Biológica Sierra Nanchititla, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México, México.

ABSTRACT
The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus