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Synergistic effect of fadrozole and insulin-like growth factor-I on female-to-male sex reversal and body weight of broiler chicks.

Mohammadrezaei M, Toghyani M, Gheisari A, Toghyani M, Eghbalsaied S - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only.Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (P<0.05).These findings revealed that (i) IGF-I-treated chicken embryos were shown to be an effective option for overcoming the very long chicken deprivation period, (ii) the simultaneous treatment with Fadrozole and IGF-I could maximize the female-to-male sex reversal chance, (iii) the increase in the body weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv) the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Fadrozole hydrochloride and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) on female-to-male sex reversal, hatching traits, and body weight of broiler chickens. On the third day of incubation, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to five experimental groups comprising (i) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg), (ii) rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iii) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg) + rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iv) vehicle injection (10 mM acetic acid and 0.1% BSA), and (v) non-injected eggs. Eggs in the rhIGF-I-injected groups showed the mode of hatching time at the 480th hour of incubation, 12 hours earlier compared to the other groups, with no statistically significant difference in mortality and hatchability. On Day 1 and 42 of production, 90% of genetically female chicks were masculinized using Fadrozole treatment, while 100% female-to-male phenotypic sex reversal was observed in the Fadrozole+rhIGF-I group. Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only. Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (P<0.05). These findings revealed that (i) IGF-I-treated chicken embryos were shown to be an effective option for overcoming the very long chicken deprivation period, (ii) the simultaneous treatment with Fadrozole and IGF-I could maximize the female-to-male sex reversal chance, (iii) the increase in the body weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv) the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos.

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Body weight on Day 1 and 42 of production from in ovo exposed chicken embryos with Fadrozole and IGF-I.The impact of chicken embryo treatment on Day 3 of incubation with Fadrozole (0.1 mg) and IGF-I (100 ng) on the average body weight (g) is depicted in (A) 1-day-old and (B) 42-day-old chicks. For the data analysis, chicks were divided into male and female sub-groups, based on ZZ/ZW genotype. Mean comparisons among five groups for each sex were carried out using Tukey post-hoc test in general linear model (GLM) procedure. In addition, mean comparison between male and female sub-groups of each treatment was conducted using an independent t-test, and the significant differences are denoted by an asterisk (*). abGroups with identical superscripts in each specific gender denote no significant difference (P≥0.05).
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pone-0103570-g002: Body weight on Day 1 and 42 of production from in ovo exposed chicken embryos with Fadrozole and IGF-I.The impact of chicken embryo treatment on Day 3 of incubation with Fadrozole (0.1 mg) and IGF-I (100 ng) on the average body weight (g) is depicted in (A) 1-day-old and (B) 42-day-old chicks. For the data analysis, chicks were divided into male and female sub-groups, based on ZZ/ZW genotype. Mean comparisons among five groups for each sex were carried out using Tukey post-hoc test in general linear model (GLM) procedure. In addition, mean comparison between male and female sub-groups of each treatment was conducted using an independent t-test, and the significant differences are denoted by an asterisk (*). abGroups with identical superscripts in each specific gender denote no significant difference (P≥0.05).

Mentions: The body weight of genetically male and female chicks on Day 1 and 42 of production are presented in Figure 2. Initial body weight at Day 1 was not significantly different between males and females in the control groups (Figure 2A). Fadrozole injection increased the weight of females, with slight impact on the male body weight. On the other hand, IGF-I supplementation considerably improved the male weight gain without changing the female average weight. This resulted in significant difference between male and female body weight in this group. The combined application of Fadrozole and IGF-I further improved the Day 1 body weight of both males and females compared to other groups. Following up the body weight till Day 42 of production (Figure 2B) indicated that unlike Day 1 weight records, there were significant different between male and female chicks in both non-injected and sham injection control groups. At this stage, Fadrozole increased the average weight of male chicks as much as that of the female chicks. This was the only group in which females showed numerically higher weight compared to the male chicks. In accordance with the Day 1 records, IGF-I significantly affected only the male chicks, with no considerable effect on females. Thus, Fadrozole attenuated the weight differences between the two genders, while IGF-I intensified the male weight gain. In accordance with the Day 1 data, simultaneous administration of Fadrozole and IGF-I increased Day 42 body weight of both males and females equally.


Synergistic effect of fadrozole and insulin-like growth factor-I on female-to-male sex reversal and body weight of broiler chicks.

Mohammadrezaei M, Toghyani M, Gheisari A, Toghyani M, Eghbalsaied S - PLoS ONE (2014)

Body weight on Day 1 and 42 of production from in ovo exposed chicken embryos with Fadrozole and IGF-I.The impact of chicken embryo treatment on Day 3 of incubation with Fadrozole (0.1 mg) and IGF-I (100 ng) on the average body weight (g) is depicted in (A) 1-day-old and (B) 42-day-old chicks. For the data analysis, chicks were divided into male and female sub-groups, based on ZZ/ZW genotype. Mean comparisons among five groups for each sex were carried out using Tukey post-hoc test in general linear model (GLM) procedure. In addition, mean comparison between male and female sub-groups of each treatment was conducted using an independent t-test, and the significant differences are denoted by an asterisk (*). abGroups with identical superscripts in each specific gender denote no significant difference (P≥0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116201&req=5

pone-0103570-g002: Body weight on Day 1 and 42 of production from in ovo exposed chicken embryos with Fadrozole and IGF-I.The impact of chicken embryo treatment on Day 3 of incubation with Fadrozole (0.1 mg) and IGF-I (100 ng) on the average body weight (g) is depicted in (A) 1-day-old and (B) 42-day-old chicks. For the data analysis, chicks were divided into male and female sub-groups, based on ZZ/ZW genotype. Mean comparisons among five groups for each sex were carried out using Tukey post-hoc test in general linear model (GLM) procedure. In addition, mean comparison between male and female sub-groups of each treatment was conducted using an independent t-test, and the significant differences are denoted by an asterisk (*). abGroups with identical superscripts in each specific gender denote no significant difference (P≥0.05).
Mentions: The body weight of genetically male and female chicks on Day 1 and 42 of production are presented in Figure 2. Initial body weight at Day 1 was not significantly different between males and females in the control groups (Figure 2A). Fadrozole injection increased the weight of females, with slight impact on the male body weight. On the other hand, IGF-I supplementation considerably improved the male weight gain without changing the female average weight. This resulted in significant difference between male and female body weight in this group. The combined application of Fadrozole and IGF-I further improved the Day 1 body weight of both males and females compared to other groups. Following up the body weight till Day 42 of production (Figure 2B) indicated that unlike Day 1 weight records, there were significant different between male and female chicks in both non-injected and sham injection control groups. At this stage, Fadrozole increased the average weight of male chicks as much as that of the female chicks. This was the only group in which females showed numerically higher weight compared to the male chicks. In accordance with the Day 1 records, IGF-I significantly affected only the male chicks, with no considerable effect on females. Thus, Fadrozole attenuated the weight differences between the two genders, while IGF-I intensified the male weight gain. In accordance with the Day 1 data, simultaneous administration of Fadrozole and IGF-I increased Day 42 body weight of both males and females equally.

Bottom Line: Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only.Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (P<0.05).These findings revealed that (i) IGF-I-treated chicken embryos were shown to be an effective option for overcoming the very long chicken deprivation period, (ii) the simultaneous treatment with Fadrozole and IGF-I could maximize the female-to-male sex reversal chance, (iii) the increase in the body weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv) the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Fadrozole hydrochloride and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) on female-to-male sex reversal, hatching traits, and body weight of broiler chickens. On the third day of incubation, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to five experimental groups comprising (i) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg), (ii) rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iii) Fadrozole (0.1 mg/egg) + rhIGF-I (100 ng/egg), (iv) vehicle injection (10 mM acetic acid and 0.1% BSA), and (v) non-injected eggs. Eggs in the rhIGF-I-injected groups showed the mode of hatching time at the 480th hour of incubation, 12 hours earlier compared to the other groups, with no statistically significant difference in mortality and hatchability. On Day 1 and 42 of production, 90% of genetically female chicks were masculinized using Fadrozole treatment, while 100% female-to-male phenotypic sex reversal was observed in the Fadrozole+rhIGF-I group. Fadrozole equalized the body weight of both genders, although rhIGF-I was effective on the body weight of male chicks only. Interestingly, combined rhIGF-I and Fadrozole could increase the body weight in both sexes compared to the individual injections (P<0.05). These findings revealed that (i) IGF-I-treated chicken embryos were shown to be an effective option for overcoming the very long chicken deprivation period, (ii) the simultaneous treatment with Fadrozole and IGF-I could maximize the female-to-male sex reversal chance, (iii) the increase in the body weight of masculinized chickens via Fadrozole could be equal to their genetically male counterparts, and (iv) the IGF-I effectiveness, specifically along with the application of aromatase inhibitors in female chicks, indicates that estrogen synthesis could be a stumbling block for the IGF-I action mechanism in female embryos.

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