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Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

Robison B, Seibel B, Drazen J - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat.These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings.They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Division, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

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The duration of embryonic development in octopodid cephalopods is related to temperature.Each point represents a different species, measured at the coldest temperature for which data are available (Table S2 in Information S1). The solid line is the best-fit power function for the data from the literature (black symbols). The dashed line extends the model to 3°C, but falls 307 days short of our measured development time for Graneledone boreopacifica (open symbol). See also Table S2 in Information S1.
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pone-0103437-g006: The duration of embryonic development in octopodid cephalopods is related to temperature.Each point represents a different species, measured at the coldest temperature for which data are available (Table S2 in Information S1). The solid line is the best-fit power function for the data from the literature (black symbols). The dashed line extends the model to 3°C, but falls 307 days short of our measured development time for Graneledone boreopacifica (open symbol). See also Table S2 in Information S1.

Mentions: Most previous attempts to model the duration of embryonic development of cephalopods at colder temperatures failed to predict the extended brooding period demonstrated here (Table S1 in Information S1). Interspecific models accounting for variation in egg size and temperature predict anywhere from 2.8 to 75 months for development when applied to G. boreopacifica. We show here that much of the interspecific variation in development time can be attributed to temperature (Figure 6). Egg size is also linked to temperature, with longer development yielding larger eggs and more completely developed hatchlings (Figure 7). However, with one exception (Table S1 in Information S1), extrapolation of existing models to 3°C still underestimates measured development in G. boreopacifica by nearly a year.


Deep-sea octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica) conducts the longest-known egg-brooding period of any animal.

Robison B, Seibel B, Drazen J - PLoS ONE (2014)

The duration of embryonic development in octopodid cephalopods is related to temperature.Each point represents a different species, measured at the coldest temperature for which data are available (Table S2 in Information S1). The solid line is the best-fit power function for the data from the literature (black symbols). The dashed line extends the model to 3°C, but falls 307 days short of our measured development time for Graneledone boreopacifica (open symbol). See also Table S2 in Information S1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116195&req=5

pone-0103437-g006: The duration of embryonic development in octopodid cephalopods is related to temperature.Each point represents a different species, measured at the coldest temperature for which data are available (Table S2 in Information S1). The solid line is the best-fit power function for the data from the literature (black symbols). The dashed line extends the model to 3°C, but falls 307 days short of our measured development time for Graneledone boreopacifica (open symbol). See also Table S2 in Information S1.
Mentions: Most previous attempts to model the duration of embryonic development of cephalopods at colder temperatures failed to predict the extended brooding period demonstrated here (Table S1 in Information S1). Interspecific models accounting for variation in egg size and temperature predict anywhere from 2.8 to 75 months for development when applied to G. boreopacifica. We show here that much of the interspecific variation in development time can be attributed to temperature (Figure 6). Egg size is also linked to temperature, with longer development yielding larger eggs and more completely developed hatchlings (Figure 7). However, with one exception (Table S1 in Information S1), extrapolation of existing models to 3°C still underestimates measured development in G. boreopacifica by nearly a year.

Bottom Line: We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat.These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings.They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Division, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Octopuses typically have a single reproductive period and then they die (semelparity). Once a clutch of fertilized eggs has been produced, the female protects and tends them until they hatch. In most shallow-water species this period of parental care can last from 1 to 3 months, but very little is known about the brooding of deep-living species. In the cold, dark waters of the deep ocean, metabolic processes are often slower than their counterparts at shallower depths. Extrapolations from data on shallow-water octopus species suggest that lower temperatures would prolong embryonic development periods. Likewise, laboratory studies have linked lower temperatures to longer brooding periods in cephalopods, but direct evidence has not been available. We found an opportunity to directly measure the brooding period of the deep-sea octopus Graneledone boreopacifica, in its natural habitat. At 53 months, it is by far the longest egg-brooding period ever reported for any animal species. These surprising results emphasize the selective value of prolonged embryonic development in order to produce competitive hatchlings. They also extend the known boundaries of physiological adaptations for life in the deep sea.

Show MeSH