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Effect of tree nuts on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled dietary trials.

Viguiliouk E, Kendall CW, Blanco Mejia S, Cozma AI, Ha V, Mirrahimi A, Jayalath VH, Augustin LS, Chiavaroli L, Leiter LA, de Souza RJ, Jenkins DJ, Sievenpiper JL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI's.Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2).No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent.

Objective: To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.

Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014.

Study selection: Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR.

Data extraction and synthesis: Two independent reviewer's extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI's. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2).

Results: Twelve trials (n = 450) were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = -0.07% [95% CI:-0.10, -0.03%]; P = 0.0003) and fasting glucose (MD = -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03) compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts.

Limitations: Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality.

Conclusions: Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630980.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Forest plot of randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of diets supplemented with tree nuts on HbA1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Pooled effect estimate (diamond) for HbA1c (%). Data are expressed as weighted mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, using the generic inverse-variance fixed effects model. Paired analyses were applied to all crossover trials. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by the Cochran Q-statistic and quantified by I2 at a significance level of P<0.10. n = number of participants in each treatment group.
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pone-0103376-g002: Forest plot of randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of diets supplemented with tree nuts on HbA1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Pooled effect estimate (diamond) for HbA1c (%). Data are expressed as weighted mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, using the generic inverse-variance fixed effects model. Paired analyses were applied to all crossover trials. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by the Cochran Q-statistic and quantified by I2 at a significance level of P<0.10. n = number of participants in each treatment group.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows a forest plot of the pooled effect of tree nuts on HbA1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diets emphasizing tree nuts significantly lowered HbA1c in comparison to control diets (MD = −0.07% [95% CI: −0.10, −0.03%]; P = 0.0003) with no significant evidence of inter-study heterogeneity (I2 = 37%; P = 0.13). Systematic removal of individual trials did not alter the results. Sensitivity analyses using different correlation coefficients in paired analyses of crossover trials (0.25 and 0.75) did not alter the significance of the pooled effect size.


Effect of tree nuts on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled dietary trials.

Viguiliouk E, Kendall CW, Blanco Mejia S, Cozma AI, Ha V, Mirrahimi A, Jayalath VH, Augustin LS, Chiavaroli L, Leiter LA, de Souza RJ, Jenkins DJ, Sievenpiper JL - PLoS ONE (2014)

Forest plot of randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of diets supplemented with tree nuts on HbA1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Pooled effect estimate (diamond) for HbA1c (%). Data are expressed as weighted mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, using the generic inverse-variance fixed effects model. Paired analyses were applied to all crossover trials. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by the Cochran Q-statistic and quantified by I2 at a significance level of P<0.10. n = number of participants in each treatment group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116170&req=5

pone-0103376-g002: Forest plot of randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of diets supplemented with tree nuts on HbA1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Pooled effect estimate (diamond) for HbA1c (%). Data are expressed as weighted mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, using the generic inverse-variance fixed effects model. Paired analyses were applied to all crossover trials. Inter-study heterogeneity was tested by the Cochran Q-statistic and quantified by I2 at a significance level of P<0.10. n = number of participants in each treatment group.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows a forest plot of the pooled effect of tree nuts on HbA1c in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diets emphasizing tree nuts significantly lowered HbA1c in comparison to control diets (MD = −0.07% [95% CI: −0.10, −0.03%]; P = 0.0003) with no significant evidence of inter-study heterogeneity (I2 = 37%; P = 0.13). Systematic removal of individual trials did not alter the results. Sensitivity analyses using different correlation coefficients in paired analyses of crossover trials (0.25 and 0.75) did not alter the significance of the pooled effect size.

Bottom Line: Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI's.Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2).No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent.

Objective: To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.

Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014.

Study selection: Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR.

Data extraction and synthesis: Two independent reviewer's extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI's. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2).

Results: Twelve trials (n = 450) were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = -0.07% [95% CI:-0.10, -0.03%]; P = 0.0003) and fasting glucose (MD = -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03) compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts.

Limitations: Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality.

Conclusions: Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630980.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus