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Tapping to a slow tempo in the presence of simple and complex meters reveals experience-specific biases for processing music.

Ullal-Gupta S, Hannon EE, Snyder JS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences.Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions.Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

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Mean average relative phase over course of trial for filled switch sequences for Americans (A) and Indians (B) in Experiment 1: simple-simple, simple-complex, and complex-simple conditions.Error bars denote between-subject standard error. Some error bars were too small to be visible. Dashed line denotes point of switch. Shaded box denotes window of interest in analyses.
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pone-0102962-g007: Mean average relative phase over course of trial for filled switch sequences for Americans (A) and Indians (B) in Experiment 1: simple-simple, simple-complex, and complex-simple conditions.Error bars denote between-subject standard error. Some error bars were too small to be visible. Dashed line denotes point of switch. Shaded box denotes window of interest in analyses.

Mentions: Relative phase values for the six switch sequences were collapsed into three conditions: 1) simple-simple (averaged across duple-triple and triple-duple), 2) simple-complex (averaged across duple-complex and triple-complex), and 3) complex-simple (averaged across complex-duple and complex-triple). Figure 7 shows that the first half of switch trials was similar to baseline trials, with positive asynchronies generally decreasing with each successive tap. When the accompanying sequence suddenly changed after the 5th target, asynchronies rose sharply depending on the condition and nationality of the participants.


Tapping to a slow tempo in the presence of simple and complex meters reveals experience-specific biases for processing music.

Ullal-Gupta S, Hannon EE, Snyder JS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Mean average relative phase over course of trial for filled switch sequences for Americans (A) and Indians (B) in Experiment 1: simple-simple, simple-complex, and complex-simple conditions.Error bars denote between-subject standard error. Some error bars were too small to be visible. Dashed line denotes point of switch. Shaded box denotes window of interest in analyses.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4116158&req=5

pone-0102962-g007: Mean average relative phase over course of trial for filled switch sequences for Americans (A) and Indians (B) in Experiment 1: simple-simple, simple-complex, and complex-simple conditions.Error bars denote between-subject standard error. Some error bars were too small to be visible. Dashed line denotes point of switch. Shaded box denotes window of interest in analyses.
Mentions: Relative phase values for the six switch sequences were collapsed into three conditions: 1) simple-simple (averaged across duple-triple and triple-duple), 2) simple-complex (averaged across duple-complex and triple-complex), and 3) complex-simple (averaged across complex-duple and complex-triple). Figure 7 shows that the first half of switch trials was similar to baseline trials, with positive asynchronies generally decreasing with each successive tap. When the accompanying sequence suddenly changed after the 5th target, asynchronies rose sharply depending on the condition and nationality of the participants.

Bottom Line: In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences.Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions.Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Musical meters vary considerably across cultures, yet relatively little is known about how culture-specific experience influences metrical processing. In Experiment 1, we compared American and Indian listeners' synchronous tapping to slow sequences. Inter-tone intervals contained silence or to-be-ignored rhythms that were designed to induce a simple meter (familiar to Americans and Indians) or a complex meter (familiar only to Indians). A subset of trials contained an abrupt switch from one rhythm to another to assess the disruptive effects of contradicting the initially implied meter. In the unfilled condition, both groups tapped earlier than the target and showed large tap-tone asynchronies (measured in relative phase). When inter-tone intervals were filled with simple-meter rhythms, American listeners tapped later than targets, but their asynchronies were smaller and declined more rapidly. Likewise, asynchronies rose sharply following a switch away from simple-meter but not from complex-meter rhythm. By contrast, Indian listeners performed similarly across all rhythm types, with asynchronies rapidly declining over the course of complex- and simple-meter trials. For these listeners, a switch from either simple or complex meter increased asynchronies. Experiment 2 tested American listeners but doubled the duration of the synchronization phase prior to (and after) the switch. Here, compared with simple meters, complex-meter rhythms elicited larger asynchronies that declined at a slower rate, however, asynchronies increased after the switch for all conditions. Our results provide evidence that ease of meter processing depends to a great extent on the amount of experience with specific meters.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus