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Immunohistochemical expression of four different stem cell markers in prostate cancer: High expression of NANOG in conjunction with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression is involved in prostate epithelial malignancy.

Miyazawa K, Tanaka T, Nakai D, Morita N, Suzuki K - Oncol Lett (2014)

Bottom Line: Prostate cancer was found in 38 cases (33.3%), while the other patients had benign prostate hyperplasia with prostatitis.A significant correlation was observed between the NANOG- and HIF-1α-positive regions.The findings of the current study suggested that NANOG expression may be a biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the coexpression of NANOG and HIF-1α may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a variety of cancer types, including prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NANOG, octamer 4 (OCT4), cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133) and NESTIN, which are all CSC markers, and assess their function in prostate carcinogenesis. A total of 114 patients were referred to the Kanazawa Medical University Hospital (Uchinada, Japan) having presented with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examinations, and underwent transrectal ultrasound sonography guided eight core biopsies. The prostate pathological specimens were re-evaluated for selection in this study. When specimens were diagnosed as prostate cancer, immunohistochemical analysis of the four different stem cell markers (NANOG, OCT4, CD133 and NESTIN) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was performed. Prostate cancer was found in 38 cases (33.3%), while the other patients had benign prostate hyperplasia with prostatitis. All prostate cancers were histopathologically identified as adenocarcinomas of various grades, and cancer cells and intraepithelial neoplasia (high grade) were immunohistochemically shown to express NANOG and OCT4, but not CD133 and NESTIN. The intensity of NANOG expression was much greater than that of OCT4, and the positivity and intensity of the four stem cell markers, including NANOG, were elevated with high Gleason scores. A significant correlation was observed between the NANOG- and HIF-1α-positive regions. The CSC markers, in particular OCT4 and NANOG, were immunohistochemically expressed in prostate cancers. Furthermore, HIF-1α expression may affect NANOG and/or OCT4 expression. The findings of the current study suggested that NANOG expression may be a biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the coexpression of NANOG and HIF-1α may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Immunohistochemical expression scores of four stem cell markers in prostate adenocarcinoma. The score of NANOG was the highest among the four stem cell markers, and the value was significantly greater than that of OCT4 (P<0.001), CD133 (P<0.001) and NESTIN (P<0.001). The score of OCT4 was significantly higher than that of CD133 (P<0.001) and nestin (P<0.001). OCT4, octamer 4; CD133, cluster of differentiation 133.
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f5-ol-08-03-0985: Immunohistochemical expression scores of four stem cell markers in prostate adenocarcinoma. The score of NANOG was the highest among the four stem cell markers, and the value was significantly greater than that of OCT4 (P<0.001), CD133 (P<0.001) and NESTIN (P<0.001). The score of OCT4 was significantly higher than that of CD133 (P<0.001) and nestin (P<0.001). OCT4, octamer 4; CD133, cluster of differentiation 133.

Mentions: Fig. 3 shows the scorings for the immunohistochemical expression of the four different stem cell markers in prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. The immunoreactivities of NANOG (P<0.001) and OCT4 (P<0.01) in prostate cancer was significantly greater than those in the non-cancerous cells. No significant differences were identified between the immunoreactivities of CD133 and NESTIN in the prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. Based on the detailed analysis, the scoring data for the four different stem cell markers in the non-cancerous and prostate cancer cells are also illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, respectively. The immunohistochemical intensity of prostate cancer was weakest for NANOG followed by OCT4, with the strongest staining for CD133 and NESTIN. In the non-cancerous tissue, as shown in Fig. 4, the immunoreactivities of NANOG (P<0.001) and OCT4 (P<0.001) were significantly greater than those of CD133 and NESTIN. In prostate cancer, NANOG (P<0.001) immunoreactivity was the strongest among the four stem cell markers (Fig. 5).


Immunohistochemical expression of four different stem cell markers in prostate cancer: High expression of NANOG in conjunction with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression is involved in prostate epithelial malignancy.

Miyazawa K, Tanaka T, Nakai D, Morita N, Suzuki K - Oncol Lett (2014)

Immunohistochemical expression scores of four stem cell markers in prostate adenocarcinoma. The score of NANOG was the highest among the four stem cell markers, and the value was significantly greater than that of OCT4 (P<0.001), CD133 (P<0.001) and NESTIN (P<0.001). The score of OCT4 was significantly higher than that of CD133 (P<0.001) and nestin (P<0.001). OCT4, octamer 4; CD133, cluster of differentiation 133.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4114613&req=5

f5-ol-08-03-0985: Immunohistochemical expression scores of four stem cell markers in prostate adenocarcinoma. The score of NANOG was the highest among the four stem cell markers, and the value was significantly greater than that of OCT4 (P<0.001), CD133 (P<0.001) and NESTIN (P<0.001). The score of OCT4 was significantly higher than that of CD133 (P<0.001) and nestin (P<0.001). OCT4, octamer 4; CD133, cluster of differentiation 133.
Mentions: Fig. 3 shows the scorings for the immunohistochemical expression of the four different stem cell markers in prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. The immunoreactivities of NANOG (P<0.001) and OCT4 (P<0.01) in prostate cancer was significantly greater than those in the non-cancerous cells. No significant differences were identified between the immunoreactivities of CD133 and NESTIN in the prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. Based on the detailed analysis, the scoring data for the four different stem cell markers in the non-cancerous and prostate cancer cells are also illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, respectively. The immunohistochemical intensity of prostate cancer was weakest for NANOG followed by OCT4, with the strongest staining for CD133 and NESTIN. In the non-cancerous tissue, as shown in Fig. 4, the immunoreactivities of NANOG (P<0.001) and OCT4 (P<0.001) were significantly greater than those of CD133 and NESTIN. In prostate cancer, NANOG (P<0.001) immunoreactivity was the strongest among the four stem cell markers (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: Prostate cancer was found in 38 cases (33.3%), while the other patients had benign prostate hyperplasia with prostatitis.A significant correlation was observed between the NANOG- and HIF-1α-positive regions.The findings of the current study suggested that NANOG expression may be a biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the coexpression of NANOG and HIF-1α may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a variety of cancer types, including prostate cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NANOG, octamer 4 (OCT4), cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133) and NESTIN, which are all CSC markers, and assess their function in prostate carcinogenesis. A total of 114 patients were referred to the Kanazawa Medical University Hospital (Uchinada, Japan) having presented with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examinations, and underwent transrectal ultrasound sonography guided eight core biopsies. The prostate pathological specimens were re-evaluated for selection in this study. When specimens were diagnosed as prostate cancer, immunohistochemical analysis of the four different stem cell markers (NANOG, OCT4, CD133 and NESTIN) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was performed. Prostate cancer was found in 38 cases (33.3%), while the other patients had benign prostate hyperplasia with prostatitis. All prostate cancers were histopathologically identified as adenocarcinomas of various grades, and cancer cells and intraepithelial neoplasia (high grade) were immunohistochemically shown to express NANOG and OCT4, but not CD133 and NESTIN. The intensity of NANOG expression was much greater than that of OCT4, and the positivity and intensity of the four stem cell markers, including NANOG, were elevated with high Gleason scores. A significant correlation was observed between the NANOG- and HIF-1α-positive regions. The CSC markers, in particular OCT4 and NANOG, were immunohistochemically expressed in prostate cancers. Furthermore, HIF-1α expression may affect NANOG and/or OCT4 expression. The findings of the current study suggested that NANOG expression may be a biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the coexpression of NANOG and HIF-1α may be involved in prostate carcinogenesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus