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Effects of gender, age, family support, and treatment on perceived stress and coping of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Hara Y, Hisatomi M, Ito H, Nakao M, Tsuboi K, Ishihara Y - Biopsychosoc Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis were performed to identify factors that affect the perceived stress and coping of patients. (1) Perceived stress and coping were strongly affected by gender. (2) Perceived stress and coping were affected by age for males, but perceived stress was not affected by age for females.The results suggest that perceived stress, coping, and diet regimen are deeply associated with gender and age and that a male with type 2 diabetes mellitus living with his spouse is strongly dependent on support from the spouse.It is important to take into account gender, age, and family environment to provide patients with an individualized approach to addressing perceived stress and to provide education program for coping that can maximize treatment and maintain better, continuous glycemic control.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Nursing, Kurume University, Higashikushiharamachi 777-1, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0003, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: We previously found that the empowerment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be strongly affected by gender and age in addition to self-managed diet and exercise behaviors and treatment. This study was to examine the effects of gender, age, family support, and treatment on the perceived stress and coping of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus living with family.

Methods: A survey was conducted of 140 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were living with family. There was no significant difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) between male and female. Perceived stress and coping were measured with the Japanese version of the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale and the Lazarus Type Stress Coping Inventory. Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis were performed to identify factors that affect the perceived stress and coping of patients.

Results: (1) Perceived stress and coping were strongly affected by gender. (2) Perceived stress and coping were affected by age for males, but perceived stress was not affected by age for females. However, females showed a greater "psychological impact of diabetes" than did males. Females aged between 50 and 69 years engaged in active problem solving, but awareness of diabetes was low. (3) Treatment regimens had an effect on HbA1c for both sexes, and diet therapy affected the awareness of diabetes of males and coping of females. (4) For females, "sense of self-control" was strongly associated with coping, and those who were living with non-spouse family members had a greater psychological impact of diabetes than those living with only their spouse. (5) For males, coping was strongly affected by living with their spouse.

Conclusions: The results suggest that perceived stress, coping, and diet regimen are deeply associated with gender and age and that a male with type 2 diabetes mellitus living with his spouse is strongly dependent on support from the spouse. It is important to take into account gender, age, and family environment to provide patients with an individualized approach to addressing perceived stress and to provide education program for coping that can maximize treatment and maintain better, continuous glycemic control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Analysis of factors that influence coping. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to model the factors that influence the 10 SCI indicators. Females were assigned a value of 0 and males a value of 1. For the treatment methods, patients undergoing either diet or exercise were assigned a value of 1, patients undergoing both diet and exercise a value of 2, patients taking OHAs irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 3, patients receiving insulin injections irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 4, and patients receiving both OHAs and insulin injections a value of 5. The figures above the arrowed lines are standardized coefficients. *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.005, ****: P < 0.001. Abbreviations for SCI indicators, Pla: Problem solving, Con: Confrontational, See: Seeking social support, Acc: Accepting responsibility, Sel: Self-controlling, Esc: Escape-avoidance, Dis: Distancing, Pos: Positive reappraisal, Co: Cognitive, Em: Emotional.
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Figure 1: Analysis of factors that influence coping. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to model the factors that influence the 10 SCI indicators. Females were assigned a value of 0 and males a value of 1. For the treatment methods, patients undergoing either diet or exercise were assigned a value of 1, patients undergoing both diet and exercise a value of 2, patients taking OHAs irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 3, patients receiving insulin injections irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 4, and patients receiving both OHAs and insulin injections a value of 5. The figures above the arrowed lines are standardized coefficients. *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.005, ****: P < 0.001. Abbreviations for SCI indicators, Pla: Problem solving, Con: Confrontational, See: Seeking social support, Acc: Accepting responsibility, Sel: Self-controlling, Esc: Escape-avoidance, Dis: Distancing, Pos: Positive reappraisal, Co: Cognitive, Em: Emotional.

Mentions: Figure 1 shows the results of path analysis carried out by stepwise multiple regressions of the data for all study subjects, together with the standardized coefficients. Gender was strongly correlated with the ADS “Psychological impact of diabetes” subscale and with the SCI indicators Dis, Esc, Sel, Pos, and Em; age with HbA1c level and with SCI indicators Dis and Esc; and treatment method with HbA1c. However, family relationships were weakly correlated with the three ADS subscales and SCI indicators. The strong correlations between the ADS “Sense of self-control” subscale and all SCI indicators except Dis suggest that the self-assessments of execution of self-control and its efficacy were clearly measured.


Effects of gender, age, family support, and treatment on perceived stress and coping of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Hara Y, Hisatomi M, Ito H, Nakao M, Tsuboi K, Ishihara Y - Biopsychosoc Med (2014)

Analysis of factors that influence coping. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to model the factors that influence the 10 SCI indicators. Females were assigned a value of 0 and males a value of 1. For the treatment methods, patients undergoing either diet or exercise were assigned a value of 1, patients undergoing both diet and exercise a value of 2, patients taking OHAs irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 3, patients receiving insulin injections irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 4, and patients receiving both OHAs and insulin injections a value of 5. The figures above the arrowed lines are standardized coefficients. *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.005, ****: P < 0.001. Abbreviations for SCI indicators, Pla: Problem solving, Con: Confrontational, See: Seeking social support, Acc: Accepting responsibility, Sel: Self-controlling, Esc: Escape-avoidance, Dis: Distancing, Pos: Positive reappraisal, Co: Cognitive, Em: Emotional.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4114439&req=5

Figure 1: Analysis of factors that influence coping. Stepwise multiple regression analysis and path analysis were used to model the factors that influence the 10 SCI indicators. Females were assigned a value of 0 and males a value of 1. For the treatment methods, patients undergoing either diet or exercise were assigned a value of 1, patients undergoing both diet and exercise a value of 2, patients taking OHAs irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 3, patients receiving insulin injections irrespective of diet and exercise therapy a value of 4, and patients receiving both OHAs and insulin injections a value of 5. The figures above the arrowed lines are standardized coefficients. *: P < 0.05, **: P < 0.01, ***: P < 0.005, ****: P < 0.001. Abbreviations for SCI indicators, Pla: Problem solving, Con: Confrontational, See: Seeking social support, Acc: Accepting responsibility, Sel: Self-controlling, Esc: Escape-avoidance, Dis: Distancing, Pos: Positive reappraisal, Co: Cognitive, Em: Emotional.
Mentions: Figure 1 shows the results of path analysis carried out by stepwise multiple regressions of the data for all study subjects, together with the standardized coefficients. Gender was strongly correlated with the ADS “Psychological impact of diabetes” subscale and with the SCI indicators Dis, Esc, Sel, Pos, and Em; age with HbA1c level and with SCI indicators Dis and Esc; and treatment method with HbA1c. However, family relationships were weakly correlated with the three ADS subscales and SCI indicators. The strong correlations between the ADS “Sense of self-control” subscale and all SCI indicators except Dis suggest that the self-assessments of execution of self-control and its efficacy were clearly measured.

Bottom Line: Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis were performed to identify factors that affect the perceived stress and coping of patients. (1) Perceived stress and coping were strongly affected by gender. (2) Perceived stress and coping were affected by age for males, but perceived stress was not affected by age for females.The results suggest that perceived stress, coping, and diet regimen are deeply associated with gender and age and that a male with type 2 diabetes mellitus living with his spouse is strongly dependent on support from the spouse.It is important to take into account gender, age, and family environment to provide patients with an individualized approach to addressing perceived stress and to provide education program for coping that can maximize treatment and maintain better, continuous glycemic control.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Nursing, Kurume University, Higashikushiharamachi 777-1, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0003, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: We previously found that the empowerment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be strongly affected by gender and age in addition to self-managed diet and exercise behaviors and treatment. This study was to examine the effects of gender, age, family support, and treatment on the perceived stress and coping of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus living with family.

Methods: A survey was conducted of 140 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were living with family. There was no significant difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) between male and female. Perceived stress and coping were measured with the Japanese version of the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale and the Lazarus Type Stress Coping Inventory. Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis were performed to identify factors that affect the perceived stress and coping of patients.

Results: (1) Perceived stress and coping were strongly affected by gender. (2) Perceived stress and coping were affected by age for males, but perceived stress was not affected by age for females. However, females showed a greater "psychological impact of diabetes" than did males. Females aged between 50 and 69 years engaged in active problem solving, but awareness of diabetes was low. (3) Treatment regimens had an effect on HbA1c for both sexes, and diet therapy affected the awareness of diabetes of males and coping of females. (4) For females, "sense of self-control" was strongly associated with coping, and those who were living with non-spouse family members had a greater psychological impact of diabetes than those living with only their spouse. (5) For males, coping was strongly affected by living with their spouse.

Conclusions: The results suggest that perceived stress, coping, and diet regimen are deeply associated with gender and age and that a male with type 2 diabetes mellitus living with his spouse is strongly dependent on support from the spouse. It is important to take into account gender, age, and family environment to provide patients with an individualized approach to addressing perceived stress and to provide education program for coping that can maximize treatment and maintain better, continuous glycemic control.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus