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Intrapopulation genome size variation in D. melanogaster reflects life history variation and plasticity.

Ellis LL, Huang W, Quinn AM, Ahuja A, Alfrejd B, Gomez FE, Hjelmen CE, Moore KL, Mackay TF, Johnston JS, Tarone AM - PLoS Genet. (2014)

Bottom Line: We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates.Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation.These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions.

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Changes in temperature alter development of D. melanogaster with small or large genomes.For each of the 25 small genome strains (red) and the 25 large genome strains (blue), the average survival to pupation (A), minimum pupation time (B), female pupal mass (C), and female eclosion time (D) was measured at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C. Averaging the small genome strains (red) or the large genome strains (blue) for each phenotype shows temperature- and genome-size specific effects on survival to pupation (E), minimum pupation time (F), female pupal mass (G), and female eclosion (H). Increased genome size is associated with decreased survival to pupation (A, E) and increased female pupal mass (C, G). Dashed lines represent 95% confidence intervals.
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pgen-1004522-g001: Changes in temperature alter development of D. melanogaster with small or large genomes.For each of the 25 small genome strains (red) and the 25 large genome strains (blue), the average survival to pupation (A), minimum pupation time (B), female pupal mass (C), and female eclosion time (D) was measured at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C. Averaging the small genome strains (red) or the large genome strains (blue) for each phenotype shows temperature- and genome-size specific effects on survival to pupation (E), minimum pupation time (F), female pupal mass (G), and female eclosion (H). Increased genome size is associated with decreased survival to pupation (A, E) and increased female pupal mass (C, G). Dashed lines represent 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: In order to take advantage of the observed variation in genome size among inbred strains and examine the life history effects of an increase or decrease of genome size, we reared 25 strains with large female genomes and 25 strains with small female genomes (Table 1) at three temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) and scored life history traits for each strain at each temperature (Figures 1, 2, S3; Table S1). A significance test across all genome size means of 211 strains derived from 1,052 measurements showed the 25 strains with the large genomes differed significantly from the 25 strains with the small genomes (Table 1) (t-test; P<0.001). The life history traits of survival to pupation, minimum pupation time, female pupal mass, and female eclosion time varied significantly across strains and temperatures (Figures 1, S3; Table S1). Survival to pupation strongly correlated with survival to adulthood (r = 0.975); therefore, we report only survival to pupation.


Intrapopulation genome size variation in D. melanogaster reflects life history variation and plasticity.

Ellis LL, Huang W, Quinn AM, Ahuja A, Alfrejd B, Gomez FE, Hjelmen CE, Moore KL, Mackay TF, Johnston JS, Tarone AM - PLoS Genet. (2014)

Changes in temperature alter development of D. melanogaster with small or large genomes.For each of the 25 small genome strains (red) and the 25 large genome strains (blue), the average survival to pupation (A), minimum pupation time (B), female pupal mass (C), and female eclosion time (D) was measured at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C. Averaging the small genome strains (red) or the large genome strains (blue) for each phenotype shows temperature- and genome-size specific effects on survival to pupation (E), minimum pupation time (F), female pupal mass (G), and female eclosion (H). Increased genome size is associated with decreased survival to pupation (A, E) and increased female pupal mass (C, G). Dashed lines represent 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109859&req=5

pgen-1004522-g001: Changes in temperature alter development of D. melanogaster with small or large genomes.For each of the 25 small genome strains (red) and the 25 large genome strains (blue), the average survival to pupation (A), minimum pupation time (B), female pupal mass (C), and female eclosion time (D) was measured at 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C. Averaging the small genome strains (red) or the large genome strains (blue) for each phenotype shows temperature- and genome-size specific effects on survival to pupation (E), minimum pupation time (F), female pupal mass (G), and female eclosion (H). Increased genome size is associated with decreased survival to pupation (A, E) and increased female pupal mass (C, G). Dashed lines represent 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: In order to take advantage of the observed variation in genome size among inbred strains and examine the life history effects of an increase or decrease of genome size, we reared 25 strains with large female genomes and 25 strains with small female genomes (Table 1) at three temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) and scored life history traits for each strain at each temperature (Figures 1, 2, S3; Table S1). A significance test across all genome size means of 211 strains derived from 1,052 measurements showed the 25 strains with the large genomes differed significantly from the 25 strains with the small genomes (Table 1) (t-test; P<0.001). The life history traits of survival to pupation, minimum pupation time, female pupal mass, and female eclosion time varied significantly across strains and temperatures (Figures 1, S3; Table S1). Survival to pupation strongly correlated with survival to adulthood (r = 0.975); therefore, we report only survival to pupation.

Bottom Line: We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates.Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation.These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
We determined female genome sizes using flow cytometry for 211 Drosophila melanogaster sequenced inbred strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and found significant conspecific and intrapopulation variation in genome size. We also compared several life history traits for 25 lines with large and 25 lines with small genomes in three thermal environments, and found that genome size as well as genome size by temperature interactions significantly correlated with survival to pupation and adulthood, time to pupation, female pupal mass, and female eclosion rates. Genome size accounted for up to 23% of the variation in developmental phenotypes, but the contribution of genome size to variation in life history traits was plastic and varied according to the thermal environment. Expression data implicate differences in metabolism that correspond to genome size variation. These results indicate that significant genome size variation exists within D. melanogaster and this variation may impact the evolutionary ecology of the species. Genome size variation accounts for a significant portion of life history variation in an environmentally dependent manner, suggesting that potential fitness effects associated with genome size variation also depend on environmental conditions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus