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Identification of Giardia lamblia DHHC proteins and the role of protein S-palmitoylation in the encystation process.

Merino MC, Zamponi N, Vranych CV, Touz MC, Rópolo AS - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome.These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades.Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra, INIMEC - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Protein S-palmitoylation, a hydrophobic post-translational modification, is performed by protein acyltransferases that have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain (DHHC proteins), and provides a regulatory switch for protein membrane association. In this work, we analyzed the presence of DHHC proteins in the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia and the function of the reversible S-palmitoylation of proteins during parasite differentiation into cyst. Two specific events were observed: encysting cells displayed a larger amount of palmitoylated proteins, and parasites treated with palmitoylation inhibitors produced a reduced number of mature cysts. With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome. These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades. Although all Giardia DHHC proteins were found to be present in trophozoites and encysting cells, these proteins showed a different intracellular localization in trophozoites and seemed to be differently involved in the encystation process when they were overexpressed. dhhc transgenic parasites showed a different pattern of cyst wall protein expression and yielded different amounts of mature cysts when they were induced to encyst. Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation.

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Orthology relationships between Giardia isolates WB, GS and P15 (Assemblages A, B and E, respectively).Phylogenetic tree of Giardia DHHC sequences from the three isolates inferred from ML analyses is depicted. Each isolate is indicated with a different color.
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pntd-0002997-g005: Orthology relationships between Giardia isolates WB, GS and P15 (Assemblages A, B and E, respectively).Phylogenetic tree of Giardia DHHC sequences from the three isolates inferred from ML analyses is depicted. Each isolate is indicated with a different color.

Mentions: We also determined the orthology relationships between sequences from different assemblages. For this, we retrieved DHHC sequences from Giardia isolates WB, GS and P15 (Assemblages A, B and E, respectively; http://giardiadb.org/giardiadb/), following the pipeline described above. As expected, every DHHC sequence in the isolate WB has a highly similar ortholog in the other isolates, which cluster together in the tree (Figure 5). Only one WB sequence, EAA36893, escapes this pattern, but this probably constitutes a case of defective annotation in isolates GS and P15.


Identification of Giardia lamblia DHHC proteins and the role of protein S-palmitoylation in the encystation process.

Merino MC, Zamponi N, Vranych CV, Touz MC, Rópolo AS - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Orthology relationships between Giardia isolates WB, GS and P15 (Assemblages A, B and E, respectively).Phylogenetic tree of Giardia DHHC sequences from the three isolates inferred from ML analyses is depicted. Each isolate is indicated with a different color.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109852&req=5

pntd-0002997-g005: Orthology relationships between Giardia isolates WB, GS and P15 (Assemblages A, B and E, respectively).Phylogenetic tree of Giardia DHHC sequences from the three isolates inferred from ML analyses is depicted. Each isolate is indicated with a different color.
Mentions: We also determined the orthology relationships between sequences from different assemblages. For this, we retrieved DHHC sequences from Giardia isolates WB, GS and P15 (Assemblages A, B and E, respectively; http://giardiadb.org/giardiadb/), following the pipeline described above. As expected, every DHHC sequence in the isolate WB has a highly similar ortholog in the other isolates, which cluster together in the tree (Figure 5). Only one WB sequence, EAA36893, escapes this pattern, but this probably constitutes a case of defective annotation in isolates GS and P15.

Bottom Line: With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome.These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades.Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra, INIMEC - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Protein S-palmitoylation, a hydrophobic post-translational modification, is performed by protein acyltransferases that have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain (DHHC proteins), and provides a regulatory switch for protein membrane association. In this work, we analyzed the presence of DHHC proteins in the protozoa parasite Giardia lamblia and the function of the reversible S-palmitoylation of proteins during parasite differentiation into cyst. Two specific events were observed: encysting cells displayed a larger amount of palmitoylated proteins, and parasites treated with palmitoylation inhibitors produced a reduced number of mature cysts. With bioinformatics tools, we found nine DHHC proteins, potential protein acyltransferases, in the Giardia proteome. These proteins displayed a conserved structure when compared to different organisms and are distributed in different monophyletic clades. Although all Giardia DHHC proteins were found to be present in trophozoites and encysting cells, these proteins showed a different intracellular localization in trophozoites and seemed to be differently involved in the encystation process when they were overexpressed. dhhc transgenic parasites showed a different pattern of cyst wall protein expression and yielded different amounts of mature cysts when they were induced to encyst. Our findings disclosed some important issues regarding the role of DHHC proteins and palmitoylation during Giardia encystation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus