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Short-term glutamine supplementation decreases lung inflammation and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products expression in direct acute lung injury in mice.

Chuang YC, Shaw HM, Chen CC, Pan HJ, Lai WC, Huang HL - BMC Pulm Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The results of this study showed that ALI-challenged mice had a significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the lung compared with unchallenged mice.The GLN group also had markedly lower in mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and NADPH oxidase-1.These results suggest that the benefit of dietary GLN may be partly contributed to an inhibitory effect on RAGE expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines production at an early stage in direct acid and LPS-induced ALI in mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan. cherry85@mail.chna.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutamine (GLN) has been reported to improve clinical and experimental sepsis outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of GLN remain unclear, and may depend upon the route of GLN administration and the model of acute lung injury (ALI) used. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term GLN supplementation had an ameliorative effect on the inflammation induced by direct acid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in mice.

Methods: Female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups, a control group and a GLN group (4.17% GLN supplementation). After a 10-day feeding period, ALI was induced by intratracheal administration of hydrochloric acid (pH 1.0; 2 mL/kg of body weight [BW]) and LPS (5 mg/kg BW). Mice were sacrificed 3 h after ALI challenge. In this early phase of ALI, serum, lungs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the mice were collected for further analysis.

Results: The results of this study showed that ALI-challenged mice had a significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the lung compared with unchallenged mice. Compared with the control group, GLN pretreatment in ALI-challenged mice reduced the levels of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and IL-1β production in BALF, with a corresponding decrease in their mRNA expression. The GLN group also had markedly lower in mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and NADPH oxidase-1.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the benefit of dietary GLN may be partly contributed to an inhibitory effect on RAGE expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines production at an early stage in direct acid and LPS-induced ALI in mice.

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Relative mRNA levels of inflammatory genes in the lungs of ALI-challenged mice. (A) iNOS; (B) COX-2; (C) IL-1β; (D) IL-6; (E) RAGE; (F) NOX-1. Each value was normalized to that of GAPDH, and the relative mRNA abundance was expressed as a fraction of that in the control group and assigned a value of 1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation; n = 10–12. The effect of GLN was evaluated by Student’s t-test in two ALI-induced groups (*p < 0.05 vs. the control group).
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Figure 3: Relative mRNA levels of inflammatory genes in the lungs of ALI-challenged mice. (A) iNOS; (B) COX-2; (C) IL-1β; (D) IL-6; (E) RAGE; (F) NOX-1. Each value was normalized to that of GAPDH, and the relative mRNA abundance was expressed as a fraction of that in the control group and assigned a value of 1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation; n = 10–12. The effect of GLN was evaluated by Student’s t-test in two ALI-induced groups (*p < 0.05 vs. the control group).

Mentions: To further examine the effect of dietary GLN on gene expression, we measured the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and COX-2, and the oxidant-generating enzyme, NOX-1. As shown in Figure 3, no statistical difference in iNOS expression was seen between the two groups. GLN treatment reduced COX-2 mRNA expression by 58% compared with the control group. The GLN group had significantly lower mRNA levels of IL-1β and IL-6 compared with the control group (39% and 49%, respectively). RAGE mRNA was significantly decreased in the GLN group. NOX-1mRNA was markedly lower in the GLN group than in the control group.


Short-term glutamine supplementation decreases lung inflammation and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products expression in direct acute lung injury in mice.

Chuang YC, Shaw HM, Chen CC, Pan HJ, Lai WC, Huang HL - BMC Pulm Med (2014)

Relative mRNA levels of inflammatory genes in the lungs of ALI-challenged mice. (A) iNOS; (B) COX-2; (C) IL-1β; (D) IL-6; (E) RAGE; (F) NOX-1. Each value was normalized to that of GAPDH, and the relative mRNA abundance was expressed as a fraction of that in the control group and assigned a value of 1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation; n = 10–12. The effect of GLN was evaluated by Student’s t-test in two ALI-induced groups (*p < 0.05 vs. the control group).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109782&req=5

Figure 3: Relative mRNA levels of inflammatory genes in the lungs of ALI-challenged mice. (A) iNOS; (B) COX-2; (C) IL-1β; (D) IL-6; (E) RAGE; (F) NOX-1. Each value was normalized to that of GAPDH, and the relative mRNA abundance was expressed as a fraction of that in the control group and assigned a value of 1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation; n = 10–12. The effect of GLN was evaluated by Student’s t-test in two ALI-induced groups (*p < 0.05 vs. the control group).
Mentions: To further examine the effect of dietary GLN on gene expression, we measured the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and COX-2, and the oxidant-generating enzyme, NOX-1. As shown in Figure 3, no statistical difference in iNOS expression was seen between the two groups. GLN treatment reduced COX-2 mRNA expression by 58% compared with the control group. The GLN group had significantly lower mRNA levels of IL-1β and IL-6 compared with the control group (39% and 49%, respectively). RAGE mRNA was significantly decreased in the GLN group. NOX-1mRNA was markedly lower in the GLN group than in the control group.

Bottom Line: The results of this study showed that ALI-challenged mice had a significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the lung compared with unchallenged mice.The GLN group also had markedly lower in mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and NADPH oxidase-1.These results suggest that the benefit of dietary GLN may be partly contributed to an inhibitory effect on RAGE expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines production at an early stage in direct acid and LPS-induced ALI in mice.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan. cherry85@mail.chna.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT

Background: Glutamine (GLN) has been reported to improve clinical and experimental sepsis outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the actions of GLN remain unclear, and may depend upon the route of GLN administration and the model of acute lung injury (ALI) used. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term GLN supplementation had an ameliorative effect on the inflammation induced by direct acid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in mice.

Methods: Female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups, a control group and a GLN group (4.17% GLN supplementation). After a 10-day feeding period, ALI was induced by intratracheal administration of hydrochloric acid (pH 1.0; 2 mL/kg of body weight [BW]) and LPS (5 mg/kg BW). Mice were sacrificed 3 h after ALI challenge. In this early phase of ALI, serum, lungs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the mice were collected for further analysis.

Results: The results of this study showed that ALI-challenged mice had a significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity and expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the lung compared with unchallenged mice. Compared with the control group, GLN pretreatment in ALI-challenged mice reduced the levels of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and IL-1β production in BALF, with a corresponding decrease in their mRNA expression. The GLN group also had markedly lower in mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and NADPH oxidase-1.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the benefit of dietary GLN may be partly contributed to an inhibitory effect on RAGE expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines production at an early stage in direct acid and LPS-induced ALI in mice.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus