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Comparative survey of go/no-go results to identify the inhibitory control ability change of Japanese children.

Terasawa K, Tabuchi H, Yanagisawa H, Yanagisawa A, Shinohara K, Terasawa S, Saijo O, Masaki T - Biopsychosoc Med (2014)

Bottom Line: In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range.The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects.While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Shinshu University, Faculty of Education, 6-Ro Nishinagano Naganoshi, Nagano 380-8544, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This research, conducted in 1998 and 2008, uses go/no-go data to investigate the fundamentals of cognitive functioning in the inhibitory control ability of Japanese children. 844 subjects from kindergarten to junior high school participated in go/no-go task experiments. Performance of go/no-go tasks, which are frequently used to investigate response inhibition, measures a variety of cognitive components besides response inhibition. With normal brain development, the ability to inhibit responses improves substantially in adolescence. An increase over time in the error rate during the go/no-go tasks of subjects of the same age indicates that these processes are not functioning properly. Comparisons between the 1998 and 2008 data revealed several differences in error rates. In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range. The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects. Taken together, these results show changing conditions in the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex. However, the reason for these changing conditions remains unclear. While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of errors for G1 to G12 in 1998. The data points and error bars indicate mean and the standard error, respectively. Significant differences are denoted with ** for p < 0.01 and *** for p < 0.001.
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Figure 2: Number of errors for G1 to G12 in 1998. The data points and error bars indicate mean and the standard error, respectively. Significant differences are denoted with ** for p < 0.01 and *** for p < 0.001.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows that the number of errors decreases with age, especially between G1 and G3. An independent ANOVA indicated that the effect of age group was significant [F(2,126) = 18.7, p < 0.001]. For the kindergarten group, Turkey’s HSD analyses showed that the numbers of errors for G2 (mean (M) =6.4, standard error (SE) =0.9) and G3 (M = 4.1, SE = 0.4) were significantly lower than for G1 (M = 12.0, SE = 1.3) [G1 vs. G2, p < 0.001; G1 vs. G3, p < 0.001]. The results of the elementary-school group from G4 to G9, however, were almost the same across these different ages [F(5,200) =1.1, p > 0.37]. In the junior-high-school group, the number of errors also decreased with age [F(2,99) = 27.4, p < 0.01]. The difference between G10 (M = 4.5, SE = 0.4) and G12 (M = 2.8, SE = 0.4) was significant [p < 0.01].


Comparative survey of go/no-go results to identify the inhibitory control ability change of Japanese children.

Terasawa K, Tabuchi H, Yanagisawa H, Yanagisawa A, Shinohara K, Terasawa S, Saijo O, Masaki T - Biopsychosoc Med (2014)

Number of errors for G1 to G12 in 1998. The data points and error bars indicate mean and the standard error, respectively. Significant differences are denoted with ** for p < 0.01 and *** for p < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109780&req=5

Figure 2: Number of errors for G1 to G12 in 1998. The data points and error bars indicate mean and the standard error, respectively. Significant differences are denoted with ** for p < 0.01 and *** for p < 0.001.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows that the number of errors decreases with age, especially between G1 and G3. An independent ANOVA indicated that the effect of age group was significant [F(2,126) = 18.7, p < 0.001]. For the kindergarten group, Turkey’s HSD analyses showed that the numbers of errors for G2 (mean (M) =6.4, standard error (SE) =0.9) and G3 (M = 4.1, SE = 0.4) were significantly lower than for G1 (M = 12.0, SE = 1.3) [G1 vs. G2, p < 0.001; G1 vs. G3, p < 0.001]. The results of the elementary-school group from G4 to G9, however, were almost the same across these different ages [F(5,200) =1.1, p > 0.37]. In the junior-high-school group, the number of errors also decreased with age [F(2,99) = 27.4, p < 0.01]. The difference between G10 (M = 4.5, SE = 0.4) and G12 (M = 2.8, SE = 0.4) was significant [p < 0.01].

Bottom Line: In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range.The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects.While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Shinshu University, Faculty of Education, 6-Ro Nishinagano Naganoshi, Nagano 380-8544, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This research, conducted in 1998 and 2008, uses go/no-go data to investigate the fundamentals of cognitive functioning in the inhibitory control ability of Japanese children. 844 subjects from kindergarten to junior high school participated in go/no-go task experiments. Performance of go/no-go tasks, which are frequently used to investigate response inhibition, measures a variety of cognitive components besides response inhibition. With normal brain development, the ability to inhibit responses improves substantially in adolescence. An increase over time in the error rate during the go/no-go tasks of subjects of the same age indicates that these processes are not functioning properly. Comparisons between the 1998 and 2008 data revealed several differences in error rates. In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range. The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects. Taken together, these results show changing conditions in the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex. However, the reason for these changing conditions remains unclear. While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus