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Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna.

Abe KT, Mariguela TC, Avelino GS, Foresti F, Oliveira C - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae.However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic.Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. claudio@ibb.unesp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted.

Results: In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted.

Conclusion: Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene--early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Best maximum likelihood (ML) tree of the Bryconidae obtained in the partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset. Numbered nodes as referenced in text and values shown in Figure 2. Numbers after species names, between braches, refer to collecting sites shown in the Figure 1; dashes represent fishes from aquaculture without known locality.
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Figure 3: Best maximum likelihood (ML) tree of the Bryconidae obtained in the partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset. Numbered nodes as referenced in text and values shown in Figure 2. Numbers after species names, between braches, refer to collecting sites shown in the Figure 1; dashes represent fishes from aquaculture without known locality.

Mentions: As shown in Figure 3, Bryconidae is monophyletic with very strong statistical support (1/100/100). Bryconidae appears as the sister group of the Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae in all analyses but the support in MP studies was less than 50% (0.99/54/-) (Figure 2). Within the Bryconidae, we identified five clades and the genus Brycon turned out as polyphyletic (Figure 3). The first clade (1/100/100) is composed of some trans-Andean species of Brycon and Chilobrycon. The second clade (1/100/100) is composed entirely of Salminus. The third clade (1/100/100) is comprised of four samples of Brycon pesu. The fourth clade (1/89/100) is composed of one trans-Andean species of Brycon and additional Brycon species from the Amazon, Orinoco, São Francisco, and Paraná-Paraguay basins. The fifth clade (1/99/100) is composed of some Brycon from the Amazon and Paraná basins, Brycon from the Brazilian coast and Henochilus.


Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna.

Abe KT, Mariguela TC, Avelino GS, Foresti F, Oliveira C - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Best maximum likelihood (ML) tree of the Bryconidae obtained in the partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset. Numbered nodes as referenced in text and values shown in Figure 2. Numbers after species names, between braches, refer to collecting sites shown in the Figure 1; dashes represent fishes from aquaculture without known locality.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109779&req=5

Figure 3: Best maximum likelihood (ML) tree of the Bryconidae obtained in the partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset. Numbered nodes as referenced in text and values shown in Figure 2. Numbers after species names, between braches, refer to collecting sites shown in the Figure 1; dashes represent fishes from aquaculture without known locality.
Mentions: As shown in Figure 3, Bryconidae is monophyletic with very strong statistical support (1/100/100). Bryconidae appears as the sister group of the Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae in all analyses but the support in MP studies was less than 50% (0.99/54/-) (Figure 2). Within the Bryconidae, we identified five clades and the genus Brycon turned out as polyphyletic (Figure 3). The first clade (1/100/100) is composed of some trans-Andean species of Brycon and Chilobrycon. The second clade (1/100/100) is composed entirely of Salminus. The third clade (1/100/100) is comprised of four samples of Brycon pesu. The fourth clade (1/89/100) is composed of one trans-Andean species of Brycon and additional Brycon species from the Amazon, Orinoco, São Francisco, and Paraná-Paraguay basins. The fifth clade (1/99/100) is composed of some Brycon from the Amazon and Paraná basins, Brycon from the Brazilian coast and Henochilus.

Bottom Line: The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae.However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic.Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. claudio@ibb.unesp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted.

Results: In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted.

Conclusion: Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene--early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus