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Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna.

Abe KT, Mariguela TC, Avelino GS, Foresti F, Oliveira C - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae.However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic.Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. claudio@ibb.unesp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted.

Results: In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted.

Conclusion: Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene--early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America.

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Summary tree showing relationships among major lineages obtained by a maximum likelihood (ML) partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset and emphasizing the relationships among species of Bryconidae (bold). A series of three numbers (e.g., 1/100/87) at each of the main nodes represents the posterior probability for that split obtained in the Bayesian analysis (B), percentage of bootstrap support obtained by ML analysis, and percentage of bootstrap support obtained by MP analysis, respectively (1000 bootstrap replicates). Dashes represent values less than 0.5 (B) or 50% (ML, MP). Asterisks represent nodes that were not obtained by B or MP analyses.
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Figure 2: Summary tree showing relationships among major lineages obtained by a maximum likelihood (ML) partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset and emphasizing the relationships among species of Bryconidae (bold). A series of three numbers (e.g., 1/100/87) at each of the main nodes represents the posterior probability for that split obtained in the Bayesian analysis (B), percentage of bootstrap support obtained by ML analysis, and percentage of bootstrap support obtained by MP analysis, respectively (1000 bootstrap replicates). Dashes represent values less than 0.5 (B) or 50% (ML, MP). Asterisks represent nodes that were not obtained by B or MP analyses.

Mentions: Throughout the text and in the figures, measures of support are represented by a series of three numbers on selected internal branches of the trees subtending labeled clades, with the first number indicating the posterior probabilities from the Bayesian analysis (B) and the following numbers indicating the non-parametric bootstrap percentages from the ML and MP analyses, respectively (e.g., 1/100/100; see Figure 2). Dashes represent values lower than 0.5 (B) or 50% (ML, MP), and asterisks represent nodes with varying topologies depending on the analytical method employed. Nodes without support values greater than 0.5 (B) and 50% (ML, MP) were collapsed. A ML tree summarizing the phylogenetic results is presented in Figure 2. The same tree expanded to show all taxa is presented in the Additional file 2. The general tree topology observed in all analyses was very similar, although statistical support was weak at some nodes. Thus, we choose the Bayesian topology obtained with BEAST to discuss the relationships among taxa and we present the differences among this result and those obtained with other techniques in the text where appropriated.


Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna.

Abe KT, Mariguela TC, Avelino GS, Foresti F, Oliveira C - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Summary tree showing relationships among major lineages obtained by a maximum likelihood (ML) partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset and emphasizing the relationships among species of Bryconidae (bold). A series of three numbers (e.g., 1/100/87) at each of the main nodes represents the posterior probability for that split obtained in the Bayesian analysis (B), percentage of bootstrap support obtained by ML analysis, and percentage of bootstrap support obtained by MP analysis, respectively (1000 bootstrap replicates). Dashes represent values less than 0.5 (B) or 50% (ML, MP). Asterisks represent nodes that were not obtained by B or MP analyses.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109779&req=5

Figure 2: Summary tree showing relationships among major lineages obtained by a maximum likelihood (ML) partitioned analysis of the concatenated dataset and emphasizing the relationships among species of Bryconidae (bold). A series of three numbers (e.g., 1/100/87) at each of the main nodes represents the posterior probability for that split obtained in the Bayesian analysis (B), percentage of bootstrap support obtained by ML analysis, and percentage of bootstrap support obtained by MP analysis, respectively (1000 bootstrap replicates). Dashes represent values less than 0.5 (B) or 50% (ML, MP). Asterisks represent nodes that were not obtained by B or MP analyses.
Mentions: Throughout the text and in the figures, measures of support are represented by a series of three numbers on selected internal branches of the trees subtending labeled clades, with the first number indicating the posterior probabilities from the Bayesian analysis (B) and the following numbers indicating the non-parametric bootstrap percentages from the ML and MP analyses, respectively (e.g., 1/100/100; see Figure 2). Dashes represent values lower than 0.5 (B) or 50% (ML, MP), and asterisks represent nodes with varying topologies depending on the analytical method employed. Nodes without support values greater than 0.5 (B) and 50% (ML, MP) were collapsed. A ML tree summarizing the phylogenetic results is presented in Figure 2. The same tree expanded to show all taxa is presented in the Additional file 2. The general tree topology observed in all analyses was very similar, although statistical support was weak at some nodes. Thus, we choose the Bayesian topology obtained with BEAST to discuss the relationships among taxa and we present the differences among this result and those obtained with other techniques in the text where appropriated.

Bottom Line: The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae.However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic.Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. claudio@ibb.unesp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted.

Results: In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted.

Conclusion: Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene--early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus