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Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna.

Abe KT, Mariguela TC, Avelino GS, Foresti F, Oliveira C - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae.However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic.Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. claudio@ibb.unesp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted.

Results: In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted.

Conclusion: Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene--early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America.

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Geographical distribution of the Bryconidae samples. 1-Brycon moorei; 2-Brycon chagrensis, Brycon petrosus; 3-Brycon moorei, Salminus affinis; 4-Brycon amazonicus, Brycon falcatus; 5-Brycon amazonicus; 6-Brycon falcatus; 7-Brycon pesu; 8-Brycon pesu; 9-Salminus sp.; 10-Brycon amazonicus; 11-Brycon melanopterus; 12-Chilobrycon deuterodon; 13-Brycon aff. atrocaudatus; 14-Brycon falcatus; 15-Brycon gouldingi; 16-Brycon cf. falcatus; 17-Brycon hilarii; 18-Brycon pesu; 19-Brycon sp.; 20-Brycon hilarii; 21-Brycon hilarii; 22-Brycon orthotaenia, Salminus franciscanus; 23-Brycon ferox, Brycon vermelha, Henochilus wheatlandii; 24-Brycon insignis; 25-Brycon nattereri; 26-Brycon opalinus; 27-Brycon opalinus; 28-Brycon orbignyanus, Salminus brasiliensis; 29-Salminus hilarii; 30-Brycon nattereri. Map constructed with the program QGIS 2.2.0 (http://www.qgis.org) using layers obtained in the websites http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov and http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/geociencias.
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Figure 1: Geographical distribution of the Bryconidae samples. 1-Brycon moorei; 2-Brycon chagrensis, Brycon petrosus; 3-Brycon moorei, Salminus affinis; 4-Brycon amazonicus, Brycon falcatus; 5-Brycon amazonicus; 6-Brycon falcatus; 7-Brycon pesu; 8-Brycon pesu; 9-Salminus sp.; 10-Brycon amazonicus; 11-Brycon melanopterus; 12-Chilobrycon deuterodon; 13-Brycon aff. atrocaudatus; 14-Brycon falcatus; 15-Brycon gouldingi; 16-Brycon cf. falcatus; 17-Brycon hilarii; 18-Brycon pesu; 19-Brycon sp.; 20-Brycon hilarii; 21-Brycon hilarii; 22-Brycon orthotaenia, Salminus franciscanus; 23-Brycon ferox, Brycon vermelha, Henochilus wheatlandii; 24-Brycon insignis; 25-Brycon nattereri; 26-Brycon opalinus; 27-Brycon opalinus; 28-Brycon orbignyanus, Salminus brasiliensis; 29-Salminus hilarii; 30-Brycon nattereri. Map constructed with the program QGIS 2.2.0 (http://www.qgis.org) using layers obtained in the websites http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov and http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/geociencias.

Mentions: The ingroup was composed of 46 specimens including 27 species of all four recognized genera of the Bryconidae (Table 1, Figure 1). To replace the Bryconidae into the evolutionary tree of the Characiformes we used the matrix employed by Oliveira et al.[1] in their broad study of Characidae relationships, including 208 samples representing all Characiformes families (Additional file 1). All specimens for this study were collected in accordance with Brazilian laws under a permanent scientific collection license in the name of Dr. Claudio Oliveira (IBAMA-SISBIO, 13843-1). Additionally, this survey was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations for the National Council for Control of Animal Experimentation and Federal Board of Veterinary Medicine. The studied material was deposited in the Laboratório de Biologia e Genética de Peixes (LBP), Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.


Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna.

Abe KT, Mariguela TC, Avelino GS, Foresti F, Oliveira C - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Geographical distribution of the Bryconidae samples. 1-Brycon moorei; 2-Brycon chagrensis, Brycon petrosus; 3-Brycon moorei, Salminus affinis; 4-Brycon amazonicus, Brycon falcatus; 5-Brycon amazonicus; 6-Brycon falcatus; 7-Brycon pesu; 8-Brycon pesu; 9-Salminus sp.; 10-Brycon amazonicus; 11-Brycon melanopterus; 12-Chilobrycon deuterodon; 13-Brycon aff. atrocaudatus; 14-Brycon falcatus; 15-Brycon gouldingi; 16-Brycon cf. falcatus; 17-Brycon hilarii; 18-Brycon pesu; 19-Brycon sp.; 20-Brycon hilarii; 21-Brycon hilarii; 22-Brycon orthotaenia, Salminus franciscanus; 23-Brycon ferox, Brycon vermelha, Henochilus wheatlandii; 24-Brycon insignis; 25-Brycon nattereri; 26-Brycon opalinus; 27-Brycon opalinus; 28-Brycon orbignyanus, Salminus brasiliensis; 29-Salminus hilarii; 30-Brycon nattereri. Map constructed with the program QGIS 2.2.0 (http://www.qgis.org) using layers obtained in the websites http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov and http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/geociencias.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109779&req=5

Figure 1: Geographical distribution of the Bryconidae samples. 1-Brycon moorei; 2-Brycon chagrensis, Brycon petrosus; 3-Brycon moorei, Salminus affinis; 4-Brycon amazonicus, Brycon falcatus; 5-Brycon amazonicus; 6-Brycon falcatus; 7-Brycon pesu; 8-Brycon pesu; 9-Salminus sp.; 10-Brycon amazonicus; 11-Brycon melanopterus; 12-Chilobrycon deuterodon; 13-Brycon aff. atrocaudatus; 14-Brycon falcatus; 15-Brycon gouldingi; 16-Brycon cf. falcatus; 17-Brycon hilarii; 18-Brycon pesu; 19-Brycon sp.; 20-Brycon hilarii; 21-Brycon hilarii; 22-Brycon orthotaenia, Salminus franciscanus; 23-Brycon ferox, Brycon vermelha, Henochilus wheatlandii; 24-Brycon insignis; 25-Brycon nattereri; 26-Brycon opalinus; 27-Brycon opalinus; 28-Brycon orbignyanus, Salminus brasiliensis; 29-Salminus hilarii; 30-Brycon nattereri. Map constructed with the program QGIS 2.2.0 (http://www.qgis.org) using layers obtained in the websites http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov and http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/geociencias.
Mentions: The ingroup was composed of 46 specimens including 27 species of all four recognized genera of the Bryconidae (Table 1, Figure 1). To replace the Bryconidae into the evolutionary tree of the Characiformes we used the matrix employed by Oliveira et al.[1] in their broad study of Characidae relationships, including 208 samples representing all Characiformes families (Additional file 1). All specimens for this study were collected in accordance with Brazilian laws under a permanent scientific collection license in the name of Dr. Claudio Oliveira (IBAMA-SISBIO, 13843-1). Additionally, this survey was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations for the National Council for Control of Animal Experimentation and Federal Board of Veterinary Medicine. The studied material was deposited in the Laboratório de Biologia e Genética de Peixes (LBP), Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Bottom Line: The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae.However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic.Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento Morfologia, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. claudio@ibb.unesp.br.

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted.

Results: In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted.

Conclusion: Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene--early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus