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fMRI evidence of improved visual function in patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa by eye-movement training.

Yoshida M, Origuchi M, Urayama S, Takatsuki A, Kan S, Aso T, Shiose T, Sawamoto N, Miyauchi S, Fukuyama H, Seiyama A - Neuroimage Clin (2014)

Bottom Line: After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05).After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability.The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Yoshida Eye Clinic, 9 Higashi-honncho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0863, Japan.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate changes in the visual processing of patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who acquired improved reading capability by eye-movement training (EMT), we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after EMT. Six patients with bilateral concentric contraction caused by pigmentary degeneration of the retina and 6 normal volunteers were recruited. Patients were given EMT for 5 min every day for 8-10 months. fMRI data were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while subjects were performing reading tasks. In separate experiments (before fMRI scanning), visual performances for readings were measured by the number of letters read correctly in 5 min. Before EMT, activation areas of the primary visual cortex of patients were 48.8% of those of the controls. The number of letters read correctly in 5 min was 36.6% of those by the normal volunteers. After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05). After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability. The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

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Number of activation voxels in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and parietal eye fields (PEFs). P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after eye-movement training of patients, respectively. [F] and [P] denote the FEFs and PEFs, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at FEFs (Normal [F] vs. P (pre) [F] or Normal [F] vs. P (post) [F]), unpaired Student’s t -test (*, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01). Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at PEFs (Normal [P] vs. P (pre) [P] or Normal [P] vs. P (post) [P]), unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) [F] vs. P (post) [F] without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2 ) yielded p < 0.01 (n = 5).
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f0025: Number of activation voxels in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and parietal eye fields (PEFs). P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after eye-movement training of patients, respectively. [F] and [P] denote the FEFs and PEFs, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at FEFs (Normal [F] vs. P (pre) [F] or Normal [F] vs. P (post) [F]), unpaired Student’s t -test (*, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01). Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at PEFs (Normal [P] vs. P (pre) [P] or Normal [P] vs. P (post) [P]), unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) [F] vs. P (post) [F] without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2 ) yielded p < 0.01 (n = 5).

Mentions: Fig. 3 also shows brain activations of the superior parietal lobules (SPLs) and inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), supplementary motor area (SMA), supplementary eye fields (SEFs), FEF, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and primary motor area (M1) at z= +55 and those areas except for SMA and SEFs at z= +35. Activations of both FEF and PEF were clearly observed in all normal volunteers (cf. Fig. 3, top). Before EMT, levels of activations in the FEF and/or PEF of the patients differed among individuals, depending on their symptoms and reading abilities; however, after EMT, increases in the activity of the FEF and/or PEF were observed in all patients (Fig. 4). The activated clusters of FEF and PEF, and their coordinates, are summarized in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Fig. 5 summarizes the statistical effect of EMT on the number of activated voxels in the FEF and PEF of the patients (activation of normal volunteers is shown for comparison). After EMT, the number of activated voxels in the FEF increased significantly (p< 0.01), whereas such increases of the activated voxels in the PEF were not significant.


fMRI evidence of improved visual function in patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa by eye-movement training.

Yoshida M, Origuchi M, Urayama S, Takatsuki A, Kan S, Aso T, Shiose T, Sawamoto N, Miyauchi S, Fukuyama H, Seiyama A - Neuroimage Clin (2014)

Number of activation voxels in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and parietal eye fields (PEFs). P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after eye-movement training of patients, respectively. [F] and [P] denote the FEFs and PEFs, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at FEFs (Normal [F] vs. P (pre) [F] or Normal [F] vs. P (post) [F]), unpaired Student’s t -test (*, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01). Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at PEFs (Normal [P] vs. P (pre) [P] or Normal [P] vs. P (post) [P]), unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) [F] vs. P (post) [F] without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2 ) yielded p < 0.01 (n = 5).
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f0025: Number of activation voxels in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) and parietal eye fields (PEFs). P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after eye-movement training of patients, respectively. [F] and [P] denote the FEFs and PEFs, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at FEFs (Normal [F] vs. P (pre) [F] or Normal [F] vs. P (post) [F]), unpaired Student’s t -test (*, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01). Normal volunteers (Normal) (n = 6) vs. patients (n = 6) at PEFs (Normal [P] vs. P (pre) [P] or Normal [P] vs. P (post) [P]), unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) [F] vs. P (post) [F] without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2 ) yielded p < 0.01 (n = 5).
Mentions: Fig. 3 also shows brain activations of the superior parietal lobules (SPLs) and inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), supplementary motor area (SMA), supplementary eye fields (SEFs), FEF, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and primary motor area (M1) at z= +55 and those areas except for SMA and SEFs at z= +35. Activations of both FEF and PEF were clearly observed in all normal volunteers (cf. Fig. 3, top). Before EMT, levels of activations in the FEF and/or PEF of the patients differed among individuals, depending on their symptoms and reading abilities; however, after EMT, increases in the activity of the FEF and/or PEF were observed in all patients (Fig. 4). The activated clusters of FEF and PEF, and their coordinates, are summarized in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Fig. 5 summarizes the statistical effect of EMT on the number of activated voxels in the FEF and PEF of the patients (activation of normal volunteers is shown for comparison). After EMT, the number of activated voxels in the FEF increased significantly (p< 0.01), whereas such increases of the activated voxels in the PEF were not significant.

Bottom Line: After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05).After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability.The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Yoshida Eye Clinic, 9 Higashi-honncho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0863, Japan.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate changes in the visual processing of patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who acquired improved reading capability by eye-movement training (EMT), we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after EMT. Six patients with bilateral concentric contraction caused by pigmentary degeneration of the retina and 6 normal volunteers were recruited. Patients were given EMT for 5 min every day for 8-10 months. fMRI data were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while subjects were performing reading tasks. In separate experiments (before fMRI scanning), visual performances for readings were measured by the number of letters read correctly in 5 min. Before EMT, activation areas of the primary visual cortex of patients were 48.8% of those of the controls. The number of letters read correctly in 5 min was 36.6% of those by the normal volunteers. After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05). After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability. The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus