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fMRI evidence of improved visual function in patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa by eye-movement training.

Yoshida M, Origuchi M, Urayama S, Takatsuki A, Kan S, Aso T, Shiose T, Sawamoto N, Miyauchi S, Fukuyama H, Seiyama A - Neuroimage Clin (2014)

Bottom Line: After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05).After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability.The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Yoshida Eye Clinic, 9 Higashi-honncho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0863, Japan.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate changes in the visual processing of patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who acquired improved reading capability by eye-movement training (EMT), we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after EMT. Six patients with bilateral concentric contraction caused by pigmentary degeneration of the retina and 6 normal volunteers were recruited. Patients were given EMT for 5 min every day for 8-10 months. fMRI data were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while subjects were performing reading tasks. In separate experiments (before fMRI scanning), visual performances for readings were measured by the number of letters read correctly in 5 min. Before EMT, activation areas of the primary visual cortex of patients were 48.8% of those of the controls. The number of letters read correctly in 5 min was 36.6% of those by the normal volunteers. After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05). After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability. The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

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A: Effect of eye-movement training (EMT) on reading task performance. Sta- tistical analyses were performed on data from 6 normal volunteers (Normal) vs. 6 patients with concentric contraction where P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after EMT, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± standard error (SE). Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t-test. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p < 0.05 (n = 5). B: Effect of EMT on fMRI task performance. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t-test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p = 0.057 (n = 5).
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f0005: A: Effect of eye-movement training (EMT) on reading task performance. Sta- tistical analyses were performed on data from 6 normal volunteers (Normal) vs. 6 patients with concentric contraction where P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after EMT, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± standard error (SE). Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t-test. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p < 0.05 (n = 5). B: Effect of EMT on fMRI task performance. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t-test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p = 0.057 (n = 5).

Mentions: Although averaged task performances of the 6 patients were 46.6% (p< 0.01) and 48.3% (p< 0.05) of the normal volunteers before and after EMT, respectively (Fig. 1A), there was no significant difference in the number of correctly read letters before and after EMT (Fig. 1A). However, averaged task performances of the 5 improved patients (i.e., patients 1–5) were 34.8% (p< 0.01) and 41.5% (p< 0.01) before and after EMT, respectively, and the number of correctly read letters significantly increased (p< 0.05) after EMT (Fig. 1A). The performances obtained with the reading tasks were almost similar to those obtained with the fMRI task during fMRI measurements (Fig. 1B). It should be noted that the rejection test, the Smirnov–Grubbs' test, indicated that patient 6 could not be statistically excluded; however, as we discuss later, the patient may be clinically excluded.


fMRI evidence of improved visual function in patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa by eye-movement training.

Yoshida M, Origuchi M, Urayama S, Takatsuki A, Kan S, Aso T, Shiose T, Sawamoto N, Miyauchi S, Fukuyama H, Seiyama A - Neuroimage Clin (2014)

A: Effect of eye-movement training (EMT) on reading task performance. Sta- tistical analyses were performed on data from 6 normal volunteers (Normal) vs. 6 patients with concentric contraction where P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after EMT, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± standard error (SE). Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t-test. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p < 0.05 (n = 5). B: Effect of EMT on fMRI task performance. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t-test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p = 0.057 (n = 5).
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
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f0005: A: Effect of eye-movement training (EMT) on reading task performance. Sta- tistical analyses were performed on data from 6 normal volunteers (Normal) vs. 6 patients with concentric contraction where P (pre) and P (post) denote before and after EMT, respectively. Data are shown as mean ± standard error (SE). Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t -test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t-test. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p < 0.05 (n = 5). B: Effect of EMT on fMRI task performance. Data are shown as mean ± SE. Normal vs. patients, unpaired Welch’s t-test ( +, p < 0.05; + +, p < 0.01). P (pre) vs. P (post), paired t -test. NS denotes no significance. Statistical analysis of P (pre) vs. P (post) without patient 6 (see Tables 1 and 2) yielded p = 0.057 (n = 5).
Mentions: Although averaged task performances of the 6 patients were 46.6% (p< 0.01) and 48.3% (p< 0.05) of the normal volunteers before and after EMT, respectively (Fig. 1A), there was no significant difference in the number of correctly read letters before and after EMT (Fig. 1A). However, averaged task performances of the 5 improved patients (i.e., patients 1–5) were 34.8% (p< 0.01) and 41.5% (p< 0.01) before and after EMT, respectively, and the number of correctly read letters significantly increased (p< 0.05) after EMT (Fig. 1A). The performances obtained with the reading tasks were almost similar to those obtained with the fMRI task during fMRI measurements (Fig. 1B). It should be noted that the rejection test, the Smirnov–Grubbs' test, indicated that patient 6 could not be statistically excluded; however, as we discuss later, the patient may be clinically excluded.

Bottom Line: After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05).After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability.The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Yoshida Eye Clinic, 9 Higashi-honncho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0863, Japan.

ABSTRACT
To evaluate changes in the visual processing of patients with progressive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who acquired improved reading capability by eye-movement training (EMT), we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after EMT. Six patients with bilateral concentric contraction caused by pigmentary degeneration of the retina and 6 normal volunteers were recruited. Patients were given EMT for 5 min every day for 8-10 months. fMRI data were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while subjects were performing reading tasks. In separate experiments (before fMRI scanning), visual performances for readings were measured by the number of letters read correctly in 5 min. Before EMT, activation areas of the primary visual cortex of patients were 48.8% of those of the controls. The number of letters read correctly in 5 min was 36.6% of those by the normal volunteers. After EMT, the activation areas of patients were not changed or slightly decreased; however, reading performance increased in 5 of 6 patients, which was 46.6% of that of the normal volunteers (p< 0.05). After EMT, increased activity was observed in the frontal eye fields (FEFs) of all patients; however, increases in the activity of the parietal eye fields (PEFs) were observed only in patients who showed greater improvement in reading capability. The improvement in reading ability of the patients after EMT is regarded as an effect of the increased activity of FEF and PEF, which play important roles in attention and working memory as well as the regulation of eye movements.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus