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Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

FTIR spectra and summary of dominant peaks of scaffolds.
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fig5: FTIR spectra and summary of dominant peaks of scaffolds.

Mentions: Studying the chemical interaction of the materials in the scaffold composite is an important aspect that could help in the modification and enhancement of the scaffold properties. Studies such as FTIR and XRD are useful tools in revealing the physiochemical properties of the materials and the subsequent chemical interactions. In observing the FTIR spectra of the scaffolds (Figure 5), it was obvious that scaffolds 1 to 4 presented with a similar pattern of spectra due to the presence of the same materials in varying composition. The differences could be attributed to the sharpness and broadness of the peaks produced. The stretching vibration of carbonyl (C=O) bonds of alginate produces strong peaks in the region of 1680–1597 cm−1. The stretching mode of hydroxyl groups (–OH) and absorbed water molecules are indicated by the presence of absorption bands in the 3250–3400 cm−1 region [27, 28]. The characteristic peak of the –OH group of alginate observed in scaffold 5 at 3239 cm−1 was observed to have gradually shifted in scaffolds 1, 2, 3, and 4. A gradual shift of carboxyl (–COOH) bands of alginate was also noted from 1411 cm−1 as observed in the spectra of scaffold 5 to 1424, 1429, and 1443 cm−1 in scaffolds 2, 3, and 4, respectively. These shifts were found to be proportional to the increasing amount of nano cockle shell powder in the scaffolds and indicates the formation of the ionic interaction between the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged carboxyl group of alginate [20, 29]. It is this ionic interaction that acts as a contributing factor to many of the characteristics of the scaffolds, including the mechanical properties and degradation behaviors. A common band at the region of 1027 cm−1 was observed in the spectra of all scaffolds indicating the stretching of the C–O groups of alginate. Bands occurring at the region of 853 cm−1 (scaffolds 2 and 3) and 854 cm−1 (scaffold 4) indicates the CO3−2 groups of aragonite. These peaks observed correspond to an important aspect on the characteristics of the calcium carbonate present in the developed scaffolds.


Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

FTIR spectra and summary of dominant peaks of scaffolds.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109673&req=5

fig5: FTIR spectra and summary of dominant peaks of scaffolds.
Mentions: Studying the chemical interaction of the materials in the scaffold composite is an important aspect that could help in the modification and enhancement of the scaffold properties. Studies such as FTIR and XRD are useful tools in revealing the physiochemical properties of the materials and the subsequent chemical interactions. In observing the FTIR spectra of the scaffolds (Figure 5), it was obvious that scaffolds 1 to 4 presented with a similar pattern of spectra due to the presence of the same materials in varying composition. The differences could be attributed to the sharpness and broadness of the peaks produced. The stretching vibration of carbonyl (C=O) bonds of alginate produces strong peaks in the region of 1680–1597 cm−1. The stretching mode of hydroxyl groups (–OH) and absorbed water molecules are indicated by the presence of absorption bands in the 3250–3400 cm−1 region [27, 28]. The characteristic peak of the –OH group of alginate observed in scaffold 5 at 3239 cm−1 was observed to have gradually shifted in scaffolds 1, 2, 3, and 4. A gradual shift of carboxyl (–COOH) bands of alginate was also noted from 1411 cm−1 as observed in the spectra of scaffold 5 to 1424, 1429, and 1443 cm−1 in scaffolds 2, 3, and 4, respectively. These shifts were found to be proportional to the increasing amount of nano cockle shell powder in the scaffolds and indicates the formation of the ionic interaction between the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged carboxyl group of alginate [20, 29]. It is this ionic interaction that acts as a contributing factor to many of the characteristics of the scaffolds, including the mechanical properties and degradation behaviors. A common band at the region of 1027 cm−1 was observed in the spectra of all scaffolds indicating the stretching of the C–O groups of alginate. Bands occurring at the region of 853 cm−1 (scaffolds 2 and 3) and 854 cm−1 (scaffold 4) indicates the CO3−2 groups of aragonite. These peaks observed correspond to an important aspect on the characteristics of the calcium carbonate present in the developed scaffolds.

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus