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Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Compressive strength and Young's modulus of scaffolds tested under a 10 kN load. asignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 4, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.
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fig4: Compressive strength and Young's modulus of scaffolds tested under a 10 kN load. asignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 4, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.

Mentions: An implanted scaffold should display certain level of mechanical strength in order to act as a temporary support material. Scaffolds designed for bone tissue engineering should possess the ability to withstand physical stress in order to facilitate the tissue regeneration process. Physical observations on the scaffolds showed a lack of brittleness in all samples tested. However plastic deformity with no signs of physical fractures or breaking at the tested load was observed in all scaffolds except scaffold 4 that was found to have lost its intact structure. The stress-strain relations were carried out from which the yield strength and Young's modulus were evaluated (Figure 4). The results from this study indicated an increase in both the mechanical properties and Young's modulus of the scaffolds that were incorporated with the nano cockle powder compared to pure alginate scaffolds (scaffold 5). The increased trend of mechanical properties was found to be proportional with the increase in the nano cockle powder content in the scaffold's composition. An exceptional was observed with scaffold 4 that showed a reduction in its mechanical strength and modulus despite having the highest content of nano cockle powder. This is likely to be attributed to the high porosity of scaffold 4 that has eventually caused a tradeoff in its mechanical properties. The elongated pore shapes of scaffold 4 as observed through SEM micrographs could be another contributing factor to the weak scaffold structure as spherical pores has better tendency to resist larger compression loads [25]. In this study, scaffold 3 showed a favorable mechanical property that was found to range between the spongy bone structure of 2 and 12 MPa [26] with a compressive strength of 3.4 MPa, making this composition most suitable in terms of mechanical properties.


Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Compressive strength and Young's modulus of scaffolds tested under a 10 kN load. asignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 4, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109673&req=5

fig4: Compressive strength and Young's modulus of scaffolds tested under a 10 kN load. asignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 4, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.
Mentions: An implanted scaffold should display certain level of mechanical strength in order to act as a temporary support material. Scaffolds designed for bone tissue engineering should possess the ability to withstand physical stress in order to facilitate the tissue regeneration process. Physical observations on the scaffolds showed a lack of brittleness in all samples tested. However plastic deformity with no signs of physical fractures or breaking at the tested load was observed in all scaffolds except scaffold 4 that was found to have lost its intact structure. The stress-strain relations were carried out from which the yield strength and Young's modulus were evaluated (Figure 4). The results from this study indicated an increase in both the mechanical properties and Young's modulus of the scaffolds that were incorporated with the nano cockle powder compared to pure alginate scaffolds (scaffold 5). The increased trend of mechanical properties was found to be proportional with the increase in the nano cockle powder content in the scaffold's composition. An exceptional was observed with scaffold 4 that showed a reduction in its mechanical strength and modulus despite having the highest content of nano cockle powder. This is likely to be attributed to the high porosity of scaffold 4 that has eventually caused a tradeoff in its mechanical properties. The elongated pore shapes of scaffold 4 as observed through SEM micrographs could be another contributing factor to the weak scaffold structure as spherical pores has better tendency to resist larger compression loads [25]. In this study, scaffold 3 showed a favorable mechanical property that was found to range between the spongy bone structure of 2 and 12 MPa [26] with a compressive strength of 3.4 MPa, making this composition most suitable in terms of mechanical properties.

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus