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Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Porosity study of the scaffolds. (b) Swelling studies of scaffolds; asignificant differences P < 0.05, n = 6. (c) Enzymatic degradation studies; bsignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 3, and 4 at P < 0.05, n = 6, csignificantly lower than scaffolds 1, 2, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.
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fig3: (a) Porosity study of the scaffolds. (b) Swelling studies of scaffolds; asignificant differences P < 0.05, n = 6. (c) Enzymatic degradation studies; bsignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 3, and 4 at P < 0.05, n = 6, csignificantly lower than scaffolds 1, 2, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.

Mentions: A highly porous structure is known to facilitate better healing quality as it promotes cell migrations and vascularization producing a more conducive environment for new bone growth. Porosity is an important characteristic of a scaffold due to its direct linkage to the degradability, swelling aspects, and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The porosity of the scaffolds was found to be above 60% and was noted to increase proportionally with the nano cockle shell powder content in the composition (Figure 3(a)). Similar findings are also reported by Soumya et al. [20] that observed an increase in porosity with the addition of extracts. This phenomenon is likely due to the evaporation of water molecules (during lyophilization) that covers the aggregated nano powder particles that gets dispersed within the alginate matrix during freezing thus forming a porous structure. The higher content of nano cockle powder results in a higher amount of aggregates dispersed within the alginate matrices consequently correlating to the higher value of porosity observed in scaffold 4. Another possible explanation for the higher porosity value in scaffold 4 may be attributed to the structural collapse which has resulted in wider pore structures.


Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

(a) Porosity study of the scaffolds. (b) Swelling studies of scaffolds; asignificant differences P < 0.05, n = 6. (c) Enzymatic degradation studies; bsignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 3, and 4 at P < 0.05, n = 6, csignificantly lower than scaffolds 1, 2, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109673&req=5

fig3: (a) Porosity study of the scaffolds. (b) Swelling studies of scaffolds; asignificant differences P < 0.05, n = 6. (c) Enzymatic degradation studies; bsignificantly higher than scaffolds 1, 2, 3, and 4 at P < 0.05, n = 6, csignificantly lower than scaffolds 1, 2, and 5 at P < 0.05, n = 6.
Mentions: A highly porous structure is known to facilitate better healing quality as it promotes cell migrations and vascularization producing a more conducive environment for new bone growth. Porosity is an important characteristic of a scaffold due to its direct linkage to the degradability, swelling aspects, and the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The porosity of the scaffolds was found to be above 60% and was noted to increase proportionally with the nano cockle shell powder content in the composition (Figure 3(a)). Similar findings are also reported by Soumya et al. [20] that observed an increase in porosity with the addition of extracts. This phenomenon is likely due to the evaporation of water molecules (during lyophilization) that covers the aggregated nano powder particles that gets dispersed within the alginate matrix during freezing thus forming a porous structure. The higher content of nano cockle powder results in a higher amount of aggregates dispersed within the alginate matrices consequently correlating to the higher value of porosity observed in scaffold 4. Another possible explanation for the higher porosity value in scaffold 4 may be attributed to the structural collapse which has resulted in wider pore structures.

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus