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Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

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Scaffolds 1 to 5 developed in varying compositions of Alg-nCP. ∗Alg : nCP. scaffold 1 (80 :  20); scaffold 2 (60 : 40); scaffold 3 (40 : 60); scaffold 4 (20 : 80); scaffold 5 (100 : 0).
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fig1: Scaffolds 1 to 5 developed in varying compositions of Alg-nCP. ∗Alg : nCP. scaffold 1 (80 :  20); scaffold 2 (60 : 40); scaffold 3 (40 : 60); scaffold 4 (20 : 80); scaffold 5 (100 : 0).

Mentions: The scaffolds produced through lyophilization method and cross-linking steps using alginate produced a scaffold structure that was found to be ideal for bone tissue grafting purposes. In addition to the egg box structure produced with the cross-linking of alginate monomers, the choice of this fabrication technique produced scaffolds with excellent porosity that is contributed by the formation of ice crystals during freezing and its subsequent removal during lyophilization. The scaffolds produced were found to be rigid structures that had a sponge-like appearance. The shade of the scaffolds varied based on the content of the cockle powder, with higher content of cockle powder producing whiter scaffolds (Figure 1).


Development and characterization of novel porous 3D alginate-cockle shell powder nanobiocomposite bone scaffold.

Bharatham BH, Abu Bakar MZ, Perimal EK, Yusof LM, Hamid M - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Scaffolds 1 to 5 developed in varying compositions of Alg-nCP. ∗Alg : nCP. scaffold 1 (80 :  20); scaffold 2 (60 : 40); scaffold 3 (40 : 60); scaffold 4 (20 : 80); scaffold 5 (100 : 0).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109673&req=5

fig1: Scaffolds 1 to 5 developed in varying compositions of Alg-nCP. ∗Alg : nCP. scaffold 1 (80 :  20); scaffold 2 (60 : 40); scaffold 3 (40 : 60); scaffold 4 (20 : 80); scaffold 5 (100 : 0).
Mentions: The scaffolds produced through lyophilization method and cross-linking steps using alginate produced a scaffold structure that was found to be ideal for bone tissue grafting purposes. In addition to the egg box structure produced with the cross-linking of alginate monomers, the choice of this fabrication technique produced scaffolds with excellent porosity that is contributed by the formation of ice crystals during freezing and its subsequent removal during lyophilization. The scaffolds produced were found to be rigid structures that had a sponge-like appearance. The shade of the scaffolds varied based on the content of the cockle powder, with higher content of cockle powder producing whiter scaffolds (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells.Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios.All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biomedical Sciences Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ; Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg) in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP) through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus