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Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review.

Kumar A, Rahal A, Chakraborty S, Verma AK, Dhama K - Vet Med Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains.The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae.Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidhyalaya Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India.

ABSTRACT
Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma agalactiae infection.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig2: Diagnosis of Mycoplasma agalactiae infection.

Mentions: Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs, namely, loss of milk production, mastitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and articular lesions. Discoloration of milk in yellowish-green color, ocular discharges, articular swellings, and lameness are suggestive of M. agalactiae infection. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by isolation and identification of the organism in the laboratory [85]. Samples of milk, auricular, ocular, vaginal, or nasal discharges, articular exudates, blood, and urine are used for the diagnosis [21, 26, 86]. For the isolation purposes from infected tissues, samples are collected aseptically from the mammary glands, regional lymph nodes, pulmonary lesions, and articular exudates during postmortem examination [26]. Isolation of M. agalactiae from liver, kidney, and spleen could be performed during the phase of mycoplasma. Cultivation is carried out in liquid or on solid media which support mycoplasma growth [18, 21]. M. agalactiae produces fried-egg colonies. Characterization of isolates based on biochemical tests is not usually recommended [22, 87] due to morphology, growth, and metabolic similarity to some other mycoplasmas [28, 88]. Various methods of diagnosis have been depicted in Figure 2.


Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review.

Kumar A, Rahal A, Chakraborty S, Verma AK, Dhama K - Vet Med Int (2014)

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma agalactiae infection.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109668&req=5

fig2: Diagnosis of Mycoplasma agalactiae infection.
Mentions: Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs, namely, loss of milk production, mastitis, keratoconjunctivitis, and articular lesions. Discoloration of milk in yellowish-green color, ocular discharges, articular swellings, and lameness are suggestive of M. agalactiae infection. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by isolation and identification of the organism in the laboratory [85]. Samples of milk, auricular, ocular, vaginal, or nasal discharges, articular exudates, blood, and urine are used for the diagnosis [21, 26, 86]. For the isolation purposes from infected tissues, samples are collected aseptically from the mammary glands, regional lymph nodes, pulmonary lesions, and articular exudates during postmortem examination [26]. Isolation of M. agalactiae from liver, kidney, and spleen could be performed during the phase of mycoplasma. Cultivation is carried out in liquid or on solid media which support mycoplasma growth [18, 21]. M. agalactiae produces fried-egg colonies. Characterization of isolates based on biochemical tests is not usually recommended [22, 87] due to morphology, growth, and metabolic similarity to some other mycoplasmas [28, 88]. Various methods of diagnosis have been depicted in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains.The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae.Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidhyalaya Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India.

ABSTRACT
Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus