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Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review.

Kumar A, Rahal A, Chakraborty S, Verma AK, Dhama K - Vet Med Int (2014)

Bottom Line: Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains.The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae.Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidhyalaya Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India.

ABSTRACT
Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transmission and pathogenesis of Mycoplasma agalactiae.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109668&req=5

fig1: Transmission and pathogenesis of Mycoplasma agalactiae.

Mentions: The sustainability of organism at room temperature supports its rapid spread through contact from infected to healthy animals. The main sources of infection include auricular, ocular and nasal secretions, faeces, milk, urine, and excretions from joint lesions [58]. Sexual transmission through infected male has been reported. Contaminated utensils and milker's hands are vital source of infection. Vertical transmission is observed through contaminated colostrum or milk [18, 59, 60]. The various sources of disease transmission have been depicted in Figure 1.


Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review.

Kumar A, Rahal A, Chakraborty S, Verma AK, Dhama K - Vet Med Int (2014)

Transmission and pathogenesis of Mycoplasma agalactiae.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109668&req=5

fig1: Transmission and pathogenesis of Mycoplasma agalactiae.
Mentions: The sustainability of organism at room temperature supports its rapid spread through contact from infected to healthy animals. The main sources of infection include auricular, ocular and nasal secretions, faeces, milk, urine, and excretions from joint lesions [58]. Sexual transmission through infected male has been reported. Contaminated utensils and milker's hands are vital source of infection. Vertical transmission is observed through contaminated colostrum or milk [18, 59, 60]. The various sources of disease transmission have been depicted in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains.The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae.Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidhyalaya Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India.

ABSTRACT
Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus