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Small RNAs in mycobacteria: an unfolding story.

Haning K, Cho SH, Contreras LM - Front Cell Infect Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Mycobacteria represent a class of powerful pathogens, including those causing tuberculosis and leprosy, which continue to be worldwide health challenges.Characterization of these sRNAs is only beginning, but differential expression under environmental stresses suggests relevance to mycobacterial pathogenesis.This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of sRNAs in mycobacteria, including historical perspective and techniques used for identification and characterization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Mycobacteria represent a class of powerful pathogens, including those causing tuberculosis and leprosy, which continue to be worldwide health challenges. In the last 20 years, an abundance of non-coding, small RNAs (sRNAs) have been discovered in model bacteria and gained significant attention as regulators of cellular responses, including pathogenesis. Naturally, a search in mycobacteria followed, revealing over 200 sRNAs thus far. Characterization of these sRNAs is only beginning, but differential expression under environmental stresses suggests relevance to mycobacterial pathogenesis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of sRNAs in mycobacteria, including historical perspective and techniques used for identification and characterization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Quantitative view of sRNA discovery in mycobacteria by phylogeny. Confirmed sRNAs have been experimentally validated while unconfirmed sRNAs include unverified computational predictions (Wattam et al., 2014).
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Figure 1: Quantitative view of sRNA discovery in mycobacteria by phylogeny. Confirmed sRNAs have been experimentally validated while unconfirmed sRNAs include unverified computational predictions (Wattam et al., 2014).

Mentions: Mycobacterial species threaten human health worldwide, causing infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. More than 140 species have been reported in the gram-positive genus Mycobacterium, which is divided into three major categories: Mycobaterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium leprae, and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (Jagielski et al., 2014). The majority of species are non-tuberculosis mycobacteria related to non-pathogenic organisms that live in water or soil. Diagnosis of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria is complex since they are diverse in growth temperatures, growth rates, and drug susceptibility, as well as in clinical relevance (Cosma et al., 2003). M. leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans are considered to be highly successful pathogens for causing leprosy and Buruli ulcers, respectively. However, M. tuberculosis is one of the most common pathogens, causing tuberculosis in humans and animals. M. bovis and other five closely related species are also classified within the M. tuberculosis complex (shown in Figure 1). Although genome sequences are highly related among species in the M. tuberculosis complex, phenotypic properties and hosts vary by species (Cole et al., 1998; Garnier et al., 2003).


Small RNAs in mycobacteria: an unfolding story.

Haning K, Cho SH, Contreras LM - Front Cell Infect Microbiol (2014)

Quantitative view of sRNA discovery in mycobacteria by phylogeny. Confirmed sRNAs have been experimentally validated while unconfirmed sRNAs include unverified computational predictions (Wattam et al., 2014).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109619&req=5

Figure 1: Quantitative view of sRNA discovery in mycobacteria by phylogeny. Confirmed sRNAs have been experimentally validated while unconfirmed sRNAs include unverified computational predictions (Wattam et al., 2014).
Mentions: Mycobacterial species threaten human health worldwide, causing infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy. More than 140 species have been reported in the gram-positive genus Mycobacterium, which is divided into three major categories: Mycobaterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium leprae, and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (Jagielski et al., 2014). The majority of species are non-tuberculosis mycobacteria related to non-pathogenic organisms that live in water or soil. Diagnosis of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria is complex since they are diverse in growth temperatures, growth rates, and drug susceptibility, as well as in clinical relevance (Cosma et al., 2003). M. leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans are considered to be highly successful pathogens for causing leprosy and Buruli ulcers, respectively. However, M. tuberculosis is one of the most common pathogens, causing tuberculosis in humans and animals. M. bovis and other five closely related species are also classified within the M. tuberculosis complex (shown in Figure 1). Although genome sequences are highly related among species in the M. tuberculosis complex, phenotypic properties and hosts vary by species (Cole et al., 1998; Garnier et al., 2003).

Bottom Line: Mycobacteria represent a class of powerful pathogens, including those causing tuberculosis and leprosy, which continue to be worldwide health challenges.Characterization of these sRNAs is only beginning, but differential expression under environmental stresses suggests relevance to mycobacterial pathogenesis.This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of sRNAs in mycobacteria, including historical perspective and techniques used for identification and characterization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA.

ABSTRACT
Mycobacteria represent a class of powerful pathogens, including those causing tuberculosis and leprosy, which continue to be worldwide health challenges. In the last 20 years, an abundance of non-coding, small RNAs (sRNAs) have been discovered in model bacteria and gained significant attention as regulators of cellular responses, including pathogenesis. Naturally, a search in mycobacteria followed, revealing over 200 sRNAs thus far. Characterization of these sRNAs is only beginning, but differential expression under environmental stresses suggests relevance to mycobacterial pathogenesis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of sRNAs in mycobacteria, including historical perspective and techniques used for identification and characterization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus