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Comparison of reaction response time between hand and foot controlled devices in simulated microsurgical testing.

Pfister M, Lue JC, Stefanini FR, Falabella P, Dustin L, Koss MJ, Humayun MS - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: The comparison of hand versus foot showed significant shorter RTs for the hand (P = 0.025).Partially significant differences between and within the experience level groups could be demonstrated by level of education (LE) and microscopic surgeries/week (MSW) (P = 0.57-0.02).Similarly the subjective questionnaire showed a greater preference for hand actuation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Doheny Eye Institute, 1450 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA ; Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We hypothesized that reaction times (RTs) for a switch release are faster for hand-controlled than for foot-controlled switches for physiological and anatomical reasons (e.g., nerve conduction speed). The risk of accidental trauma could be reduced if the surgeon reacted quicker and therefore improve the surgical outcome.

Method: We included 47 medical professionals at USC. Demographics and handedness were recorded. Under a microscope, a simple reaction time test was performed, testing all extremities multiple times in a random order. Additionally, a subjective questionnaire was administered.

Results: The mean RTs for hands are 318.24 ms ± 51.13 and feet 328.69 ± 48.70. The comparison of hand versus foot showed significant shorter RTs for the hand (P = 0.025). Partially significant differences between and within the experience level groups could be demonstrated by level of education (LE) and microscopic surgeries/week (MSW) (P = 0.57-0.02). In the subjective questionnaire, 91.5% (n = 43/47) of test subjects prefer to use hand controls.

Conclusion: Our data show that the RT for hands is faster than feet. Similarly the subjective questionnaire showed a greater preference for hand actuation. This data suggest a hand-controlled ophthalmic instrument might have distinct advantages; however, clinical correlation is required.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematics of systematic setup for the response time experiment.
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fig1: Schematics of systematic setup for the response time experiment.

Mentions: To accurately evaluate the RT from human test subjects and minimize the machine's RT, we considered the moment of the electrical break of a pressed subminiature snap switch (D2F-FL with lever, Omron Electronics Inc.) as the onset of the human response. The RT of this subminiature snap switch is less than 1 ms. The RT was examined using a high-speed video camera (640 × 512 resolution at 1000 fps, MotionScope M1, RedLake). For hand tests, we used a dummy hand piece mounted with the D2F subminiature snap switch (Figure 1). For foot tests, we used a conventional foot pedal (BL2390, Stellaris PC foot pedal, Bausch & Lomb) with the same D2F subminiature snap switch mounted underneath the foot pedal. The testing with the high-speed camera was performed 10 times for the hand switch and foot switch with the original test equipment and analyzed by J.-C. L.


Comparison of reaction response time between hand and foot controlled devices in simulated microsurgical testing.

Pfister M, Lue JC, Stefanini FR, Falabella P, Dustin L, Koss MJ, Humayun MS - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Schematics of systematic setup for the response time experiment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109600&req=5

fig1: Schematics of systematic setup for the response time experiment.
Mentions: To accurately evaluate the RT from human test subjects and minimize the machine's RT, we considered the moment of the electrical break of a pressed subminiature snap switch (D2F-FL with lever, Omron Electronics Inc.) as the onset of the human response. The RT of this subminiature snap switch is less than 1 ms. The RT was examined using a high-speed video camera (640 × 512 resolution at 1000 fps, MotionScope M1, RedLake). For hand tests, we used a dummy hand piece mounted with the D2F subminiature snap switch (Figure 1). For foot tests, we used a conventional foot pedal (BL2390, Stellaris PC foot pedal, Bausch & Lomb) with the same D2F subminiature snap switch mounted underneath the foot pedal. The testing with the high-speed camera was performed 10 times for the hand switch and foot switch with the original test equipment and analyzed by J.-C. L.

Bottom Line: The comparison of hand versus foot showed significant shorter RTs for the hand (P = 0.025).Partially significant differences between and within the experience level groups could be demonstrated by level of education (LE) and microscopic surgeries/week (MSW) (P = 0.57-0.02).Similarly the subjective questionnaire showed a greater preference for hand actuation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Doheny Eye Institute, 1450 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA ; Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We hypothesized that reaction times (RTs) for a switch release are faster for hand-controlled than for foot-controlled switches for physiological and anatomical reasons (e.g., nerve conduction speed). The risk of accidental trauma could be reduced if the surgeon reacted quicker and therefore improve the surgical outcome.

Method: We included 47 medical professionals at USC. Demographics and handedness were recorded. Under a microscope, a simple reaction time test was performed, testing all extremities multiple times in a random order. Additionally, a subjective questionnaire was administered.

Results: The mean RTs for hands are 318.24 ms ± 51.13 and feet 328.69 ± 48.70. The comparison of hand versus foot showed significant shorter RTs for the hand (P = 0.025). Partially significant differences between and within the experience level groups could be demonstrated by level of education (LE) and microscopic surgeries/week (MSW) (P = 0.57-0.02). In the subjective questionnaire, 91.5% (n = 43/47) of test subjects prefer to use hand controls.

Conclusion: Our data show that the RT for hands is faster than feet. Similarly the subjective questionnaire showed a greater preference for hand actuation. This data suggest a hand-controlled ophthalmic instrument might have distinct advantages; however, clinical correlation is required.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus