Limits...
An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mesothoracic structures of Elaphropus (Tachylopha) leleupi Basilewsky. A Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax B Anterior view of mesothorax, dorsal surface and soft tissue removed. Scale bars 0.1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109512&req=5

Figure 12: Mesothoracic structures of Elaphropus (Tachylopha) leleupi Basilewsky. A Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax B Anterior view of mesothorax, dorsal surface and soft tissue removed. Scale bars 0.1 mm.

Mentions: Two other groups of carabids reported to have mesepisternal pits were also examined, members of subgenus Tachylopha of the genus Elaphropus (Bruneau de Miré 1966; Erwin 1970) and the genus Oodinus (Spence 1982). I have specimens of these preserved in 95% ethanol, and both have large pits in the mesepisternum in the same place as Bembidion (Nothonepha). In Elaphropus (Tachylopha) leleupi Basilewsky from South Africa the pits are filled with a waxy substance similar to that seen in Nothonepha (Fig. 12A). Internally these pits appear as two large intrusions that join in mid-thorax to form a tunnel (Fig. 12B); in the two specimens I have dissected there is no evidence of a septum at the point of joining, and the waxy substance fills the tunnel. I have seen ethanol-preserved specimens of Elaphropus (Tachylopha) basilewskyi Bruneau de Miré from Gabon (identified with Bruneau de Miré (1966)) and Elaphropus (Tachylopha) spenceri (Sloane) from Australia (identified with Baehr (1988)) that have similar pits also filled with a waxy substance. The apparently related subgenus Sphaerotachys also has mesepisternal pits, although they are much smaller than those seen in Tachylopha; a specimen I have examined from Hans Merensky Nature Reserve, Republic of South Africa, has pits similar to those shown in Fig. 11. The single ethanol-preserved Oodinus alutaceus (Bates) (identified with Bousquet (1996)) that I have examined, from south Texas, also has mesepisternal pits, but internally the intrusions do not touch, and are more similar in structure to those of Bembidion (Nothonepha) than Elaphropus (Tachylopha). In some specimens of Oodinus, the pits are also filled with a waxy substance (Spence 1982).


An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Mesothoracic structures of Elaphropus (Tachylopha) leleupi Basilewsky. A Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax B Anterior view of mesothorax, dorsal surface and soft tissue removed. Scale bars 0.1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109512&req=5

Figure 12: Mesothoracic structures of Elaphropus (Tachylopha) leleupi Basilewsky. A Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax B Anterior view of mesothorax, dorsal surface and soft tissue removed. Scale bars 0.1 mm.
Mentions: Two other groups of carabids reported to have mesepisternal pits were also examined, members of subgenus Tachylopha of the genus Elaphropus (Bruneau de Miré 1966; Erwin 1970) and the genus Oodinus (Spence 1982). I have specimens of these preserved in 95% ethanol, and both have large pits in the mesepisternum in the same place as Bembidion (Nothonepha). In Elaphropus (Tachylopha) leleupi Basilewsky from South Africa the pits are filled with a waxy substance similar to that seen in Nothonepha (Fig. 12A). Internally these pits appear as two large intrusions that join in mid-thorax to form a tunnel (Fig. 12B); in the two specimens I have dissected there is no evidence of a septum at the point of joining, and the waxy substance fills the tunnel. I have seen ethanol-preserved specimens of Elaphropus (Tachylopha) basilewskyi Bruneau de Miré from Gabon (identified with Bruneau de Miré (1966)) and Elaphropus (Tachylopha) spenceri (Sloane) from Australia (identified with Baehr (1988)) that have similar pits also filled with a waxy substance. The apparently related subgenus Sphaerotachys also has mesepisternal pits, although they are much smaller than those seen in Tachylopha; a specimen I have examined from Hans Merensky Nature Reserve, Republic of South Africa, has pits similar to those shown in Fig. 11. The single ethanol-preserved Oodinus alutaceus (Bates) (identified with Bousquet (1996)) that I have examined, from south Texas, also has mesepisternal pits, but internally the intrusions do not touch, and are more similar in structure to those of Bembidion (Nothonepha) than Elaphropus (Tachylopha). In some specimens of Oodinus, the pits are also filled with a waxy substance (Spence 1982).

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus