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An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax; top of each photograph is anterior. msst: mesosternum; msepst: mesepisternum; msep: mesepimeron (note that the boundaries between these sclerites are not evident externally in A. ABembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon, DRM voucher V100810 BBembidion (Antiperyphanes) zanettii, DRM voucher V100811. Scale bar 0.1 mm.
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Figure 9: Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax; top of each photograph is anterior. msst: mesosternum; msepst: mesepisternum; msep: mesepimeron (note that the boundaries between these sclerites are not evident externally in A. ABembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon, DRM voucher V100810 BBembidion (Antiperyphanes) zanettii, DRM voucher V100811. Scale bar 0.1 mm.

Mentions: Mesothoracic pits. The most striking derived feature observed was presence in all Nothonepha species of a pit in each lateral wall of the mesothorax. This mesepisternal pit (Fig. 9A) appears empty in many specimens killed in ethyl acetate, but in most specimens preserved in ethanol, a waxy substance is visible within it (Fig. 9A). When extracted and placed in glycerin on a microscope slide, this substance appears slightly yellowish-gray and contains no obvious substructure or particles (including no evident bacteria or fungal spores) when examined at 400× with transmitted, brightfield light (n=2, from Bembidion tetrapholeon). In contrast, all other members of Bembidion examined to date lack such a pit (e.g., Fig. 9B).


An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax; top of each photograph is anterior. msst: mesosternum; msepst: mesepisternum; msep: mesepimeron (note that the boundaries between these sclerites are not evident externally in A. ABembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon, DRM voucher V100810 BBembidion (Antiperyphanes) zanettii, DRM voucher V100811. Scale bar 0.1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109512&req=5

Figure 9: Left lateral region of the prothorax and mesothorax; top of each photograph is anterior. msst: mesosternum; msepst: mesepisternum; msep: mesepimeron (note that the boundaries between these sclerites are not evident externally in A. ABembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon, DRM voucher V100810 BBembidion (Antiperyphanes) zanettii, DRM voucher V100811. Scale bar 0.1 mm.
Mentions: Mesothoracic pits. The most striking derived feature observed was presence in all Nothonepha species of a pit in each lateral wall of the mesothorax. This mesepisternal pit (Fig. 9A) appears empty in many specimens killed in ethyl acetate, but in most specimens preserved in ethanol, a waxy substance is visible within it (Fig. 9A). When extracted and placed in glycerin on a microscope slide, this substance appears slightly yellowish-gray and contains no obvious substructure or particles (including no evident bacteria or fungal spores) when examined at 400× with transmitted, brightfield light (n=2, from Bembidion tetrapholeon). In contrast, all other members of Bembidion examined to date lack such a pit (e.g., Fig. 9B).

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus