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An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tree of highest likelihood found for the combined, seven-gene matrix with partitioning scheme chosen by PartitionFinder. Only members of the Bembidion Series shown; more distant outgroups not depicted. Scale bar: 0.01, branch lengths as reconstructed by RAxML.
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Figure 7: Tree of highest likelihood found for the combined, seven-gene matrix with partitioning scheme chosen by PartitionFinder. Only members of the Bembidion Series shown; more distant outgroups not depicted. Scale bar: 0.01, branch lengths as reconstructed by RAxML.

Mentions: Taxon sampling for DNA studies. DNA was newly sequenced from 25 species of the Antiperyphanes Complex of Bembidion; to these sequences were added sequences of 20 more species of this complex acquired during previous studies (Table 1). Forty additional species of Bembidion were also included in the analyses (27 species of the Bembidion Series exclusive of the Antiperyphanes Complex, plus 13 species of Bembidion outside the Bembidion Series). The 27 additional Bembidion Series species are evident in Fig. 7; details about these species and specimens sequenced are available in Maddison (2012). The 13 species outside of the Bembidion Series included are Bembidion variegatum Say, Bembidion planum (Haldeman), Bembidion stephensi Crotch, Bembidion tetracolum Say, Bembidion hastii Sahlberg, Bembidion punctulatum Drapiez, Bembidion properans (Stephens), Bembidion concolor (Kirby), Bembidion chalceum (Dejean), Bembidion lunulatum (Geoffroy), Bembidion wickhami Hayward, Bembidion genei illigeri Netolitzky, and Bembidion cf. exquisitium Andrewes.


An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Tree of highest likelihood found for the combined, seven-gene matrix with partitioning scheme chosen by PartitionFinder. Only members of the Bembidion Series shown; more distant outgroups not depicted. Scale bar: 0.01, branch lengths as reconstructed by RAxML.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109512&req=5

Figure 7: Tree of highest likelihood found for the combined, seven-gene matrix with partitioning scheme chosen by PartitionFinder. Only members of the Bembidion Series shown; more distant outgroups not depicted. Scale bar: 0.01, branch lengths as reconstructed by RAxML.
Mentions: Taxon sampling for DNA studies. DNA was newly sequenced from 25 species of the Antiperyphanes Complex of Bembidion; to these sequences were added sequences of 20 more species of this complex acquired during previous studies (Table 1). Forty additional species of Bembidion were also included in the analyses (27 species of the Bembidion Series exclusive of the Antiperyphanes Complex, plus 13 species of Bembidion outside the Bembidion Series). The 27 additional Bembidion Series species are evident in Fig. 7; details about these species and specimens sequenced are available in Maddison (2012). The 13 species outside of the Bembidion Series included are Bembidion variegatum Say, Bembidion planum (Haldeman), Bembidion stephensi Crotch, Bembidion tetracolum Say, Bembidion hastii Sahlberg, Bembidion punctulatum Drapiez, Bembidion properans (Stephens), Bembidion concolor (Kirby), Bembidion chalceum (Dejean), Bembidion lunulatum (Geoffroy), Bembidion wickhami Hayward, Bembidion genei illigeri Netolitzky, and Bembidion cf. exquisitium Andrewes.

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus