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An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Habitats of the subgenus Nothonepha. A Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) eburneonigrum (on sand patches) and Bembidion (Nothonepha) sp. nr. lonae (on sand patches and in gravel). This habitat (Chile: Reg. IX: Rio Allipén at route 119, 132m) is also home to Bembidion spinolai Solier and Bembidion rufoplagiatumB Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tucumanum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti (Argentina: Mendoza: Salinas del Diamante, 1280m). The beetles are common under rocks and around vegetation on the salt-encrusted clay and sand banks of this saline pond; in the same habitat Bembidion (Notaphus) cillenoides Jensen-Haarup and two other Notaphus are common C On the sand shores of this desert river Bembidion (Nothonepha) germainianum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae are common (Argentina: Neuquén: Rio Salado at route 40, 725m) D Type locality of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon (Argentina: Neuquén: Arroyo Queñi at Lago Queñi, 830m). The beetles are found under rocks along the river shore; Bembidion rufoplagiatum is also common in this habitat.
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Figure 6: Habitats of the subgenus Nothonepha. A Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) eburneonigrum (on sand patches) and Bembidion (Nothonepha) sp. nr. lonae (on sand patches and in gravel). This habitat (Chile: Reg. IX: Rio Allipén at route 119, 132m) is also home to Bembidion spinolai Solier and Bembidion rufoplagiatumB Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tucumanum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti (Argentina: Mendoza: Salinas del Diamante, 1280m). The beetles are common under rocks and around vegetation on the salt-encrusted clay and sand banks of this saline pond; in the same habitat Bembidion (Notaphus) cillenoides Jensen-Haarup and two other Notaphus are common C On the sand shores of this desert river Bembidion (Nothonepha) germainianum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae are common (Argentina: Neuquén: Rio Salado at route 40, 725m) D Type locality of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon (Argentina: Neuquén: Arroyo Queñi at Lago Queñi, 830m). The beetles are found under rocks along the river shore; Bembidion rufoplagiatum is also common in this habitat.

Mentions: The current more in-depth investigation into phylogeny of the Antiperyphanes Complex was inspired by discovery, on the gravel shores of Rio Puntra on Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile, of a large, distinctive, undescribed species of Bembidion (Figs 5A and 5B). This unusual species appeared to fall outside any named subgenus, and is given the name Bembidion tetrapholeon in this paper. In order to infer its relationships, additional members of the Antiperyphanes Complex were gathered and sequenced. Preliminary results from the sequences of one gene indicated the existence of a clade so surprising that I initially considered it fallacious, a result of errors in sample labeling, but when additional samples and genes provided stronger support, that explanation was no longer tenable. This apparent clade, including the new species, consisted of taxa that are much more diverse in form (Fig. 5) and habitat (Fig. 6) than other small clades of similar molecular diversity. This paper reports the results of sequencing of seven genes which together provide very strong support for this clade. The discovery of the clade led to the search for morphological synapomorphies of its members, and a striking, derived character was found in thoracic structure. Although the focus of the paper is on this unexpected clade, the relationships of other members of the Antiperyphanes Complex are explored, and a new classification is proposed for the group.


An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

Maddison DR - Zookeys (2014)

Habitats of the subgenus Nothonepha. A Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) eburneonigrum (on sand patches) and Bembidion (Nothonepha) sp. nr. lonae (on sand patches and in gravel). This habitat (Chile: Reg. IX: Rio Allipén at route 119, 132m) is also home to Bembidion spinolai Solier and Bembidion rufoplagiatumB Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tucumanum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti (Argentina: Mendoza: Salinas del Diamante, 1280m). The beetles are common under rocks and around vegetation on the salt-encrusted clay and sand banks of this saline pond; in the same habitat Bembidion (Notaphus) cillenoides Jensen-Haarup and two other Notaphus are common C On the sand shores of this desert river Bembidion (Nothonepha) germainianum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae are common (Argentina: Neuquén: Rio Salado at route 40, 725m) D Type locality of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon (Argentina: Neuquén: Arroyo Queñi at Lago Queñi, 830m). The beetles are found under rocks along the river shore; Bembidion rufoplagiatum is also common in this habitat.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
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Figure 6: Habitats of the subgenus Nothonepha. A Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) eburneonigrum (on sand patches) and Bembidion (Nothonepha) sp. nr. lonae (on sand patches and in gravel). This habitat (Chile: Reg. IX: Rio Allipén at route 119, 132m) is also home to Bembidion spinolai Solier and Bembidion rufoplagiatumB Habitat of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tucumanum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti (Argentina: Mendoza: Salinas del Diamante, 1280m). The beetles are common under rocks and around vegetation on the salt-encrusted clay and sand banks of this saline pond; in the same habitat Bembidion (Notaphus) cillenoides Jensen-Haarup and two other Notaphus are common C On the sand shores of this desert river Bembidion (Nothonepha) germainianum, Bembidion (Nothonepha) engelhardti, and Bembidion (Nothonepha) lonae are common (Argentina: Neuquén: Rio Salado at route 40, 725m) D Type locality of Bembidion (Nothonepha) tetrapholeon (Argentina: Neuquén: Arroyo Queñi at Lago Queñi, 830m). The beetles are found under rocks along the river shore; Bembidion rufoplagiatum is also common in this habitat.
Mentions: The current more in-depth investigation into phylogeny of the Antiperyphanes Complex was inspired by discovery, on the gravel shores of Rio Puntra on Isla Grande de Chiloé, Chile, of a large, distinctive, undescribed species of Bembidion (Figs 5A and 5B). This unusual species appeared to fall outside any named subgenus, and is given the name Bembidion tetrapholeon in this paper. In order to infer its relationships, additional members of the Antiperyphanes Complex were gathered and sequenced. Preliminary results from the sequences of one gene indicated the existence of a clade so surprising that I initially considered it fallacious, a result of errors in sample labeling, but when additional samples and genes provided stronger support, that explanation was no longer tenable. This apparent clade, including the new species, consisted of taxa that are much more diverse in form (Fig. 5) and habitat (Fig. 6) than other small clades of similar molecular diversity. This paper reports the results of sequencing of seven genes which together provide very strong support for this clade. The discovery of the clade led to the search for morphological synapomorphies of its members, and a striking, derived character was found in thoracic structure. Although the focus of the paper is on this unexpected clade, the relationships of other members of the Antiperyphanes Complex are explored, and a new classification is proposed for the group.

Bottom Line: Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic.Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha.A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

ABSTRACT
Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus