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Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae).

Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences.Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote.Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6.

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

No MeSH data available.


Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus species (coloured shading) in western North America. Half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Ranges for Populus trichocarpa + Populus balsamifera and Populus angustifolia + Populus deltoides are combined, with both Populus balsamifera and Populus deltoides occuring in Alberta – Montana (upper right). Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).
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Figure 3: Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus species (coloured shading) in western North America. Half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Ranges for Populus trichocarpa + Populus balsamifera and Populus angustifolia + Populus deltoides are combined, with both Populus balsamifera and Populus deltoides occuring in Alberta – Montana (upper right). Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).

Mentions: Raphia has an extensive North American distribution, occupying virtually all biomes. Phenotypes are generally quite consistent regionally, but can appear drastically different in geographically disparate areas, which led early authors such as Smith (1908) to recognize multiple North American species. To assess phenotypic and mtDNA variation in these contact zones, we therefore attempted to locate and study specimens from key geographic regions where either two or more taxa would be expected to occur sympatrically or transition from one phenotype to another. The most comprehensive data were available for four such regions: a) the central Great Plains and b) the northeastern U.S., both where nominal ssp. frater interacts with ssp. abrupta; b) southern New Mexico where ssp. elbea meets ssp. coloradensis, and c) the Pacific Northwest / northern Rocky Mountains where sspp. coloradensis, frater and elbea meet (Figs 1, 3).


Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae).

Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG - Zookeys (2014)

Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus species (coloured shading) in western North America. Half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Ranges for Populus trichocarpa + Populus balsamifera and Populus angustifolia + Populus deltoides are combined, with both Populus balsamifera and Populus deltoides occuring in Alberta – Montana (upper right). Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109472&req=5

Figure 3: Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus species (coloured shading) in western North America. Half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Ranges for Populus trichocarpa + Populus balsamifera and Populus angustifolia + Populus deltoides are combined, with both Populus balsamifera and Populus deltoides occuring in Alberta – Montana (upper right). Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).
Mentions: Raphia has an extensive North American distribution, occupying virtually all biomes. Phenotypes are generally quite consistent regionally, but can appear drastically different in geographically disparate areas, which led early authors such as Smith (1908) to recognize multiple North American species. To assess phenotypic and mtDNA variation in these contact zones, we therefore attempted to locate and study specimens from key geographic regions where either two or more taxa would be expected to occur sympatrically or transition from one phenotype to another. The most comprehensive data were available for four such regions: a) the central Great Plains and b) the northeastern U.S., both where nominal ssp. frater interacts with ssp. abrupta; b) southern New Mexico where ssp. elbea meets ssp. coloradensis, and c) the Pacific Northwest / northern Rocky Mountains where sspp. coloradensis, frater and elbea meet (Figs 1, 3).

Bottom Line: The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences.Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote.Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6.

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

No MeSH data available.