Limits...
Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae).

Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences.Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote.Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6.

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

No MeSH data available.


Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus larval host plants (coloured shading) in eastern North America. Black circles - subsp. frater; white circles – subsp. abrupta; grey circles – subsp. piazzi; half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Blue shading – combined ranges of Populus tremuloides and Populus grandidentata; yellow shading – Populus deltoides; range overlap depicted in green. Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109472&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus larval host plants (coloured shading) in eastern North America. Black circles - subsp. frater; white circles – subsp. abrupta; grey circles – subsp. piazzi; half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Blue shading – combined ranges of Populus tremuloides and Populus grandidentata; yellow shading – Populus deltoides; range overlap depicted in green. Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).

Mentions: The nature of the ssp. abrupta – frater interface is somewhat different in the Northeast, and is seemingly more influenced by topography and host plant distribution (Fig. 2); at least three Populus species occur regionally among topography ranging from coastal floodplains to the Appalachian Mountains. Specimens from the Pocono Mtns. of Pennsylvania are Raphia frater frater, whereas nearby central Maryland (Ann Arundel Co.) specimens (Fig. 1h) show transitional features in having a forewing pattern much like ssp. frater, but with a fuscous hindwing and a darker prothoracic collar characteristic of ssp. abrupta. Coastal Maryland (Montgomery Co.) specimens are typical Raphia frater abrupta (Fig. 1e). As discussed below, the transition zone between ssp. frater and ssp. abrupta seems to be mediated by habitat and host plant differences, with frater largely associated with aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and Populus grandidentata Michx.; Fig. 2) and ssp. abrupta with cottonwood (Populus deltoides; Fig. 2). Study of the populations on either side of the Ohio River is needed because frater occurs throughout Ohio (Rings et al. 1992), whereas the few northeastern Kentucky specimens that were examined are mostly like ssp. abrupta, but show some ssp. frater traits, including a mostly white hindwing. The Ohio River valley is an important suture zone between other biota, but the relative limits of Raphia frater frater and ssp. abrupta from the northern Appalachians eastward appear to be further south than recognized suture zones (Swenson 2010).


Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae).

Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG - Zookeys (2014)

Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus larval host plants (coloured shading) in eastern North America. Black circles - subsp. frater; white circles – subsp. abrupta; grey circles – subsp. piazzi; half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Blue shading – combined ranges of Populus tremuloides and Populus grandidentata; yellow shading – Populus deltoides; range overlap depicted in green. Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109472&req=5

Figure 2: Distribution of Raphia frater subspecies (circles) relative to range of Populus larval host plants (coloured shading) in eastern North America. Black circles - subsp. frater; white circles – subsp. abrupta; grey circles – subsp. piazzi; half-circles represent transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens. Blue shading – combined ranges of Populus tremuloides and Populus grandidentata; yellow shading – Populus deltoides; range overlap depicted in green. Populus ranges adapted from USGS (2013).
Mentions: The nature of the ssp. abrupta – frater interface is somewhat different in the Northeast, and is seemingly more influenced by topography and host plant distribution (Fig. 2); at least three Populus species occur regionally among topography ranging from coastal floodplains to the Appalachian Mountains. Specimens from the Pocono Mtns. of Pennsylvania are Raphia frater frater, whereas nearby central Maryland (Ann Arundel Co.) specimens (Fig. 1h) show transitional features in having a forewing pattern much like ssp. frater, but with a fuscous hindwing and a darker prothoracic collar characteristic of ssp. abrupta. Coastal Maryland (Montgomery Co.) specimens are typical Raphia frater abrupta (Fig. 1e). As discussed below, the transition zone between ssp. frater and ssp. abrupta seems to be mediated by habitat and host plant differences, with frater largely associated with aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and Populus grandidentata Michx.; Fig. 2) and ssp. abrupta with cottonwood (Populus deltoides; Fig. 2). Study of the populations on either side of the Ohio River is needed because frater occurs throughout Ohio (Rings et al. 1992), whereas the few northeastern Kentucky specimens that were examined are mostly like ssp. abrupta, but show some ssp. frater traits, including a mostly white hindwing. The Ohio River valley is an important suture zone between other biota, but the relative limits of Raphia frater frater and ssp. abrupta from the northern Appalachians eastward appear to be further south than recognized suture zones (Swenson 2010).

Bottom Line: The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences.Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote.Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6.

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

No MeSH data available.