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Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae).

Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences.Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote.Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6.

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

No MeSH data available.


Geographic distribution and phenotypic variation of Raphia frater subspecies. Circles indicate specimens examined during this study: green – subsp. piazzi; pink – subsp. abrupta; black – subsp. frater; blue – subsp. coloradensis; yellow – subsp. cinderella. Multi-coloured circles indicate transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens between respective subspecies. aRaphia frater piazzi (Zavallo Co., TX) bRaphia frater abrupta (Oktibeha Co., MS) cRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) dRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) eRaphia frater abrupta (Montgomery Co., MD) f, gRaphia frater frater (Edmunston, NB) hRaphia frater abrupta – frater intermediate (Anne Arundel Co., MD) iRaphia frater abrupta – frater – coloradensis intermediate from highly variable population in Cherry Co., NE jRaphia frater coloradensis (Alamosa Co., CO) kRaphia frater coloradensis (Milk River valley, AB) lRaphia frater coloradensis (Sanpete Co., UT) mRaphia frater coloradensis (Elko Co., NV) nRaphia frater cinderella (Ventura Co., CA) o, pRaphia frater coloradensis – frater intermediates (Chelan Co., WA) qRaphia frater elbea (Cochise Co., AZ) rRaphia frater elbea (San Juan Co., UT) sRaphia frater elbea (Santa Cruz Co., AZ). All specimens are males.
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Figure 1: Geographic distribution and phenotypic variation of Raphia frater subspecies. Circles indicate specimens examined during this study: green – subsp. piazzi; pink – subsp. abrupta; black – subsp. frater; blue – subsp. coloradensis; yellow – subsp. cinderella. Multi-coloured circles indicate transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens between respective subspecies. aRaphia frater piazzi (Zavallo Co., TX) bRaphia frater abrupta (Oktibeha Co., MS) cRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) dRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) eRaphia frater abrupta (Montgomery Co., MD) f, gRaphia frater frater (Edmunston, NB) hRaphia frater abrupta – frater intermediate (Anne Arundel Co., MD) iRaphia frater abrupta – frater – coloradensis intermediate from highly variable population in Cherry Co., NE jRaphia frater coloradensis (Alamosa Co., CO) kRaphia frater coloradensis (Milk River valley, AB) lRaphia frater coloradensis (Sanpete Co., UT) mRaphia frater coloradensis (Elko Co., NV) nRaphia frater cinderella (Ventura Co., CA) o, pRaphia frater coloradensis – frater intermediates (Chelan Co., WA) qRaphia frater elbea (Cochise Co., AZ) rRaphia frater elbea (San Juan Co., UT) sRaphia frater elbea (Santa Cruz Co., AZ). All specimens are males.

Mentions: The North American Raphia species have previously been delineated based on wing colour and pattern (Smith 1908), and geographic variation is considerable (Fig. 1). The most important forewing characters include ground colour, extent of medio-anal black shading, shape of the antemedial band, and the amount of fuscous shading of the hindwing. The colour of the prothoracic setae and overall size also vary.


Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae).

Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG - Zookeys (2014)

Geographic distribution and phenotypic variation of Raphia frater subspecies. Circles indicate specimens examined during this study: green – subsp. piazzi; pink – subsp. abrupta; black – subsp. frater; blue – subsp. coloradensis; yellow – subsp. cinderella. Multi-coloured circles indicate transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens between respective subspecies. aRaphia frater piazzi (Zavallo Co., TX) bRaphia frater abrupta (Oktibeha Co., MS) cRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) dRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) eRaphia frater abrupta (Montgomery Co., MD) f, gRaphia frater frater (Edmunston, NB) hRaphia frater abrupta – frater intermediate (Anne Arundel Co., MD) iRaphia frater abrupta – frater – coloradensis intermediate from highly variable population in Cherry Co., NE jRaphia frater coloradensis (Alamosa Co., CO) kRaphia frater coloradensis (Milk River valley, AB) lRaphia frater coloradensis (Sanpete Co., UT) mRaphia frater coloradensis (Elko Co., NV) nRaphia frater cinderella (Ventura Co., CA) o, pRaphia frater coloradensis – frater intermediates (Chelan Co., WA) qRaphia frater elbea (Cochise Co., AZ) rRaphia frater elbea (San Juan Co., UT) sRaphia frater elbea (Santa Cruz Co., AZ). All specimens are males.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
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Figure 1: Geographic distribution and phenotypic variation of Raphia frater subspecies. Circles indicate specimens examined during this study: green – subsp. piazzi; pink – subsp. abrupta; black – subsp. frater; blue – subsp. coloradensis; yellow – subsp. cinderella. Multi-coloured circles indicate transitional populations and/or phenotypically intermediate specimens between respective subspecies. aRaphia frater piazzi (Zavallo Co., TX) bRaphia frater abrupta (Oktibeha Co., MS) cRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) dRaphia frater abrupta (Cottle Co., TX) eRaphia frater abrupta (Montgomery Co., MD) f, gRaphia frater frater (Edmunston, NB) hRaphia frater abrupta – frater intermediate (Anne Arundel Co., MD) iRaphia frater abrupta – frater – coloradensis intermediate from highly variable population in Cherry Co., NE jRaphia frater coloradensis (Alamosa Co., CO) kRaphia frater coloradensis (Milk River valley, AB) lRaphia frater coloradensis (Sanpete Co., UT) mRaphia frater coloradensis (Elko Co., NV) nRaphia frater cinderella (Ventura Co., CA) o, pRaphia frater coloradensis – frater intermediates (Chelan Co., WA) qRaphia frater elbea (Cochise Co., AZ) rRaphia frater elbea (San Juan Co., UT) sRaphia frater elbea (Santa Cruz Co., AZ). All specimens are males.
Mentions: The North American Raphia species have previously been delineated based on wing colour and pattern (Smith 1908), and geographic variation is considerable (Fig. 1). The most important forewing characters include ground colour, extent of medio-anal black shading, shape of the antemedial band, and the amount of fuscous shading of the hindwing. The colour of the prothoracic setae and overall size also vary.

Bottom Line: The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences.Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote.Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, K.W. Neatby Bldg., 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0C6.

ABSTRACT
The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American Raphia species is reviewed using adult morphology, larval host plants, geographic phenotypic variation, and variation of mtDNA COI barcode sequences. Lack of diagnostic morphological differences, combined with relatively low mtDNA barcode divergences and clinal phenotypic variation in key geographic regions indicate that the six previously recognized species of North American Raphia are best interpreted as parapatric subspecies. Raphia frater abrupta Grote, stat. n., R. f. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, stat. r., R. f. piazzi Hill, stat. n., and R. f. elbea Smith, stat. n., are accordingly revised to subspecies of R. frater Grote. Type locality restrictions are provided for Raphia abrupta and Raphia frater and a neotype is designated for Raphia frater var. coloradensis.

No MeSH data available.