Limits...
Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon.

Oz HS - Front Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen.Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications.There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center Lexington, KY, USA.

ABSTRACT
Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Multiple sources of ubiquitous Toxoplasma for maternal congenital transmission.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109466&req=5

Figure 1: Multiple sources of ubiquitous Toxoplasma for maternal congenital transmission.

Mentions: Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important foodborne inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities (Hoffmann et al., 2012). Toxoplasma is classified as “Category B pathogen” which once infected, the organisms dwell in organs such as muscles and brain in cyst forms for the life of the patient/host to become reactivated. The organisms have a sexual stage in cat’s intestinal epithelial cells which form resistant oocysts passed in feces and matured in dirt (Figure 1). Humans and other animals develop systemic infection in asexual form by ingestion of contaminated vegetable, fruits, water, or consumption of infected milk and undercooked sea food, poultry, and livestock. Tachyzoites infect nucleated host cells and utilize monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells as “Trojan Horse” (1) to escape the host immune defense (Elsheikha and Khan, 2010), (2) to bypass the blood–brain barrier (Bierly et al., 2008) and the placenta barricade, and (3) to spread and form systemic disease. Toxoplasma infests particularly rural and impoverish communities of women, African American, Hispanics, and Native Americans as a “frequently ignored disease of poverty” (Hotez, 2008). Toxoplasmosis is considered as the second major cause of foodborne death in the United States (Scallan et al., 2011). The Toxoplasma annual cost of illnesses is about $3 billion and the quality-adjusted life loss is equal to 11,000 years in the United States (Hoffmann et al., 2012). Toxoplasmosis in immune-intact individuals is generally symptomless and undetected or appears like flu syndrome and malaise. However, it can cause severe pathological consequences in immunocompromised patients, fetuses, and neonates and lead to demise and death (Dubey and Jones, 2008).


Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, currently available and novel therapies in horizon.

Oz HS - Front Microbiol (2014)

Multiple sources of ubiquitous Toxoplasma for maternal congenital transmission.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109466&req=5

Figure 1: Multiple sources of ubiquitous Toxoplasma for maternal congenital transmission.
Mentions: Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important foodborne inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities (Hoffmann et al., 2012). Toxoplasma is classified as “Category B pathogen” which once infected, the organisms dwell in organs such as muscles and brain in cyst forms for the life of the patient/host to become reactivated. The organisms have a sexual stage in cat’s intestinal epithelial cells which form resistant oocysts passed in feces and matured in dirt (Figure 1). Humans and other animals develop systemic infection in asexual form by ingestion of contaminated vegetable, fruits, water, or consumption of infected milk and undercooked sea food, poultry, and livestock. Tachyzoites infect nucleated host cells and utilize monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells as “Trojan Horse” (1) to escape the host immune defense (Elsheikha and Khan, 2010), (2) to bypass the blood–brain barrier (Bierly et al., 2008) and the placenta barricade, and (3) to spread and form systemic disease. Toxoplasma infests particularly rural and impoverish communities of women, African American, Hispanics, and Native Americans as a “frequently ignored disease of poverty” (Hotez, 2008). Toxoplasmosis is considered as the second major cause of foodborne death in the United States (Scallan et al., 2011). The Toxoplasma annual cost of illnesses is about $3 billion and the quality-adjusted life loss is equal to 11,000 years in the United States (Hoffmann et al., 2012). Toxoplasmosis in immune-intact individuals is generally symptomless and undetected or appears like flu syndrome and malaise. However, it can cause severe pathological consequences in immunocompromised patients, fetuses, and neonates and lead to demise and death (Dubey and Jones, 2008).

Bottom Line: Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen.Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications.There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center Lexington, KY, USA.

ABSTRACT
Over one billion people worldwide are predicted to harbor Toxoplasma infection frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of foodborne, inflammatory illnesses, as well as congenital abnormalities. Ubiquitous Toxoplasma has a unique tropism for central nervous system with a mind-bugging effect and is transmitted sexually through semen. Currently available therapies are ineffective for persistent chronic disease and congenital toxoplasmosis or have severe side effects which may result in life-threatening complications. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to eliminate or treat this cosmopolitan infectious and inflammatory disease. This investigation discusses pathogenesis of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis, the currently available therapies in practice, and the experimental therapeutic modalities for promising future trials.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus