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Life beneath the surface of the central Texan Balcones Escarpment: genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini): new species, a key to the Texas species, and notes about their way of life and evolution.

Sokolov IM, Reddell JR, Kavanaugh DH - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods.Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity.The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT
The Texas fauna of the genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 includes three previously described species (A. affabilis (Brues), 1902, A. depressus (Jeannel), 1963 and A. sinuatus (Jeannel), 1963) and four new species here described: A. acutipennis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. comalensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: 7 miles W of New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas); A. forthoodensis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. wisemanensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Wiseman Sink, Hays County, Texas). A key for identification of adults of these species is provided. The fauna includes both soil- and cave-inhabiting species restricted to the Balcones Fault Zone and Lampasas Cut Plain and adjacent areas underlain by the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Based on morphological and distributional data, we hypothesize that four lineages of endogean Anillinus species extended their geographical ranges from a source area in the Ouachita-Ozark Mountains to the Balconian region in central Texas. There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods. Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity. The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region.

No MeSH data available.


SEM images of body parts, dorsal aspect, of Anillinus species. A–C Head: AAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) BAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) CAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) D–F Pronotum: DAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) EAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) FAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) G–J Apical half of elytra: GAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) HAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Bell Cave) IAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) JAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave). ass – anterior supraorbital seta; bm – basal margination; bs – basilateral pronotal seta; cs – clypeal seta; ed6 – 3d discal seta; ed8 – apical seta; eo5-9 setae from the umbilical series; fs – frontal seta; pss – posterior supraorbital seta; ft – frontal tubercle; ls – midlaterall pronotal seta; mp3 – maxillary palpomere 3; mp4 – maxillar palpomere 4. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
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Figure 2: SEM images of body parts, dorsal aspect, of Anillinus species. A–C Head: AAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) BAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) CAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) D–F Pronotum: DAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) EAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) FAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) G–J Apical half of elytra: GAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) HAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Bell Cave) IAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) JAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave). ass – anterior supraorbital seta; bm – basal margination; bs – basilateral pronotal seta; cs – clypeal seta; ed6 – 3d discal seta; ed8 – apical seta; eo5-9 setae from the umbilical series; fs – frontal seta; pss – posterior supraorbital seta; ft – frontal tubercle; ls – midlaterall pronotal seta; mp3 – maxillary palpomere 3; mp4 – maxillar palpomere 4. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.

Mentions: All examined specimens of Texan Anillina are characterized by the following combination of characters: Head totally covered with microsculpture (Fig. 2A–C) comprised of irregular, nearly isodiametric sculpticells. Anterior margin of labrum and clypeus straight. Frontal area flat with minute tubercle (ft) medially near frontoclypeal suture. Fronto-lateral carinae distinct and long. Primary head setae include a pair of clypeal (cs), a pair of frontal (fs) and two pairs of supraorbital (ass and pss) setae. Labium (Fig. 3A–B) with mental tooth; mentum and submentum separated by mental-submental suture (ms). Glossal sclerite (gsc) with distinct paraglossae (pg) laterally and with two setae apically. Maxillary palps (Fig. 2A–C) with short 4th palpomere (mp4), which is 0.2–0.3 length of palpomere 3 (mp3). Pronotum (Fig. 2D–F) of various proportions, totally covered with microsculpture (which is pronounced in most specimens, but present only as very fine microlines visible only at a certain angle in some specimens), with two long primary lateral setae (middle, ls, and basal, bs) on each side. Elytra (Fig. 2G–J) totally covered with microsculpture, with basal margination (bm) distinct and long, with scutellar, three discal, apical, and the series umbilicata setae. Scutellar and discal setae of similar size and approximately three times longer than surrounding vestiture. In most species, last two (8th and 9th) pores (eo8 and eo9) of umbilicate series much closer to each other than 7th (eo7) pore is to 8th (not so only in Anillinus depressus (Jeannel)). Abdomen with ventrite 5 of male with two and of female with four setae along the posterior margin. Aedeagi of males of all examined species with two parameres (Fig. 6), the typical configuration for most Anillina.


Life beneath the surface of the central Texan Balcones Escarpment: genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini): new species, a key to the Texas species, and notes about their way of life and evolution.

Sokolov IM, Reddell JR, Kavanaugh DH - Zookeys (2014)

SEM images of body parts, dorsal aspect, of Anillinus species. A–C Head: AAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) BAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) CAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) D–F Pronotum: DAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) EAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) FAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) G–J Apical half of elytra: GAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) HAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Bell Cave) IAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) JAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave). ass – anterior supraorbital seta; bm – basal margination; bs – basilateral pronotal seta; cs – clypeal seta; ed6 – 3d discal seta; ed8 – apical seta; eo5-9 setae from the umbilical series; fs – frontal seta; pss – posterior supraorbital seta; ft – frontal tubercle; ls – midlaterall pronotal seta; mp3 – maxillary palpomere 3; mp4 – maxillar palpomere 4. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109464&req=5

Figure 2: SEM images of body parts, dorsal aspect, of Anillinus species. A–C Head: AAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) BAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) CAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) D–F Pronotum: DAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) EAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) FAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) G–J Apical half of elytra: GAnillinus wisemanensis (TEXAS, Hays County, Wiseman Sink) HAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Bell Cave) IAnillinus forthoodensis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave) JAnillinus acutipennis (TEXAS, Bell County, Talking Crows Cave). ass – anterior supraorbital seta; bm – basal margination; bs – basilateral pronotal seta; cs – clypeal seta; ed6 – 3d discal seta; ed8 – apical seta; eo5-9 setae from the umbilical series; fs – frontal seta; pss – posterior supraorbital seta; ft – frontal tubercle; ls – midlaterall pronotal seta; mp3 – maxillary palpomere 3; mp4 – maxillar palpomere 4. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.
Mentions: All examined specimens of Texan Anillina are characterized by the following combination of characters: Head totally covered with microsculpture (Fig. 2A–C) comprised of irregular, nearly isodiametric sculpticells. Anterior margin of labrum and clypeus straight. Frontal area flat with minute tubercle (ft) medially near frontoclypeal suture. Fronto-lateral carinae distinct and long. Primary head setae include a pair of clypeal (cs), a pair of frontal (fs) and two pairs of supraorbital (ass and pss) setae. Labium (Fig. 3A–B) with mental tooth; mentum and submentum separated by mental-submental suture (ms). Glossal sclerite (gsc) with distinct paraglossae (pg) laterally and with two setae apically. Maxillary palps (Fig. 2A–C) with short 4th palpomere (mp4), which is 0.2–0.3 length of palpomere 3 (mp3). Pronotum (Fig. 2D–F) of various proportions, totally covered with microsculpture (which is pronounced in most specimens, but present only as very fine microlines visible only at a certain angle in some specimens), with two long primary lateral setae (middle, ls, and basal, bs) on each side. Elytra (Fig. 2G–J) totally covered with microsculpture, with basal margination (bm) distinct and long, with scutellar, three discal, apical, and the series umbilicata setae. Scutellar and discal setae of similar size and approximately three times longer than surrounding vestiture. In most species, last two (8th and 9th) pores (eo8 and eo9) of umbilicate series much closer to each other than 7th (eo7) pore is to 8th (not so only in Anillinus depressus (Jeannel)). Abdomen with ventrite 5 of male with two and of female with four setae along the posterior margin. Aedeagi of males of all examined species with two parameres (Fig. 6), the typical configuration for most Anillina.

Bottom Line: There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods.Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity.The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT
The Texas fauna of the genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 includes three previously described species (A. affabilis (Brues), 1902, A. depressus (Jeannel), 1963 and A. sinuatus (Jeannel), 1963) and four new species here described: A. acutipennis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. comalensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: 7 miles W of New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas); A. forthoodensis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. wisemanensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Wiseman Sink, Hays County, Texas). A key for identification of adults of these species is provided. The fauna includes both soil- and cave-inhabiting species restricted to the Balcones Fault Zone and Lampasas Cut Plain and adjacent areas underlain by the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Based on morphological and distributional data, we hypothesize that four lineages of endogean Anillinus species extended their geographical ranges from a source area in the Ouachita-Ozark Mountains to the Balconian region in central Texas. There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods. Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity. The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region.

No MeSH data available.