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Depression does not affect time perception and time-to-contact estimation.

Oberfeld D, Thönes S, Palayoor BJ, Hecht H - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive.We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction.We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Section Experimental Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Depressed patients frequently report a subjective slowing of the passage of time. However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive. We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction. In the TTC estimation task, the deviations of the estimates from the veridical values (relative errors) revealed no differences between depressed patients (N= 22) and healthy controls (N= 22). Neither did the relative errors of the TTC estimates differ between groups. There was a weak trend toward higher variability of the estimates in depressed patients but only at the shortest TTC and at the fastest velocities. Time experience (subjective flow of time) as well as time perception in terms of interval timing (verbal estimation, time production, time reproduction) performed on the same subjects likewise failed to produce effects of depression. We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean Weber fractions as a function of TTC in controls (squares) and patients (circles). Error bars: 95% CIs.
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Figure 8: Mean Weber fractions as a function of TTC in controls (squares) and patients (circles). Error bars: 95% CIs.

Mentions: We also analyzed the variability of TTC judgments by computing Weber fractions (standard deviation divided by TTC). An rmANOVA with the within-subjects factors velocity and TTC, and the between-subjects factor group (patients and controls) showed a significant effect of TTC on the Weber fractions, F(2,84) = 83.677, p < 0.001, = 0.666, = 0.581. The Weber fraction was larger for short compared to long TTCs (refer to Figure 7). This is compatible with earlier reports (DeLucia and Liddell, 1998; Oberfeld and Hecht, 2008). The velocity × TTC interaction was significant, F(2,84) = 4.669, p = 0.018, = 0.100, = 0.809. For the two shorter TTCs, the Weber fraction was larger for the faster than for the slower velocity. Velocity did not have a significant main effect, F(1,42) = 0.895, p = 0.349, = 0.021. The effect of group was not significant, F(1,42) = 2.02, p = 0.16, = 0.046. Thus, depression patients did not produce more variable TTC estimates than did healthy controls. The TTC × group interaction just failed to reach significance, F(2,84) = 3.61, p = 0.058, = 0.079, = 0.581. At the 0.5 s TTC, the Weber fractions were higher in patients than in the controls, whereas at the two longer TTCs, there was not much difference between the two groups (Figure 8). The velocity × group interaction was not significant, F(2,84) = 3.28, p = 0.078, = 0.072, = 1.0. At the slow velocity, the Weber fractions were almost identical in patients and controls. However, at the fast velocity, the Weber fraction was higher in patients than in controls (Figure 9).


Depression does not affect time perception and time-to-contact estimation.

Oberfeld D, Thönes S, Palayoor BJ, Hecht H - Front Psychol (2014)

Mean Weber fractions as a function of TTC in controls (squares) and patients (circles). Error bars: 95% CIs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109439&req=5

Figure 8: Mean Weber fractions as a function of TTC in controls (squares) and patients (circles). Error bars: 95% CIs.
Mentions: We also analyzed the variability of TTC judgments by computing Weber fractions (standard deviation divided by TTC). An rmANOVA with the within-subjects factors velocity and TTC, and the between-subjects factor group (patients and controls) showed a significant effect of TTC on the Weber fractions, F(2,84) = 83.677, p < 0.001, = 0.666, = 0.581. The Weber fraction was larger for short compared to long TTCs (refer to Figure 7). This is compatible with earlier reports (DeLucia and Liddell, 1998; Oberfeld and Hecht, 2008). The velocity × TTC interaction was significant, F(2,84) = 4.669, p = 0.018, = 0.100, = 0.809. For the two shorter TTCs, the Weber fraction was larger for the faster than for the slower velocity. Velocity did not have a significant main effect, F(1,42) = 0.895, p = 0.349, = 0.021. The effect of group was not significant, F(1,42) = 2.02, p = 0.16, = 0.046. Thus, depression patients did not produce more variable TTC estimates than did healthy controls. The TTC × group interaction just failed to reach significance, F(2,84) = 3.61, p = 0.058, = 0.079, = 0.581. At the 0.5 s TTC, the Weber fractions were higher in patients than in the controls, whereas at the two longer TTCs, there was not much difference between the two groups (Figure 8). The velocity × group interaction was not significant, F(2,84) = 3.28, p = 0.078, = 0.072, = 1.0. At the slow velocity, the Weber fractions were almost identical in patients and controls. However, at the fast velocity, the Weber fraction was higher in patients than in controls (Figure 9).

Bottom Line: However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive.We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction.We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Section Experimental Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Depressed patients frequently report a subjective slowing of the passage of time. However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive. We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction. In the TTC estimation task, the deviations of the estimates from the veridical values (relative errors) revealed no differences between depressed patients (N= 22) and healthy controls (N= 22). Neither did the relative errors of the TTC estimates differ between groups. There was a weak trend toward higher variability of the estimates in depressed patients but only at the shortest TTC and at the fastest velocities. Time experience (subjective flow of time) as well as time perception in terms of interval timing (verbal estimation, time production, time reproduction) performed on the same subjects likewise failed to produce effects of depression. We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus