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Depression does not affect time perception and time-to-contact estimation.

Oberfeld D, Thönes S, Palayoor BJ, Hecht H - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive.We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction.We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Section Experimental Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Depressed patients frequently report a subjective slowing of the passage of time. However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive. We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction. In the TTC estimation task, the deviations of the estimates from the veridical values (relative errors) revealed no differences between depressed patients (N= 22) and healthy controls (N= 22). Neither did the relative errors of the TTC estimates differ between groups. There was a weak trend toward higher variability of the estimates in depressed patients but only at the shortest TTC and at the fastest velocities. Time experience (subjective flow of time) as well as time perception in terms of interval timing (verbal estimation, time production, time reproduction) performed on the same subjects likewise failed to produce effects of depression. We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean relative error of the TTC estimates as a function of TTC, velocity, and group.(A) Control group. (B) Depressive patients. Error bars: 95% CIs.
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Figure 6: Mean relative error of the TTC estimates as a function of TTC, velocity, and group.(A) Control group. (B) Depressive patients. Error bars: 95% CIs.

Mentions: For the TTC estimation (PM) task, we used the same criterion for outlier exclusion as for the timing tasks. In total, only 0.2% of the trials were excluded as outliers. An rmANOVA with the within-subjects factors velocity and TTC, and the between-subjects factor group (patients and controls), showed a significant effect of TTC on the relative error, F(2,84) = 76.122, p < 0.001, = 0.644, = 0.551. The mean relative errors (see Figure 5) show that TTC estimates were generally above the veridical value, especially at a TTC of 0.5 s. Velocity had no significant effect on the relative error of the TTC estimates, F(1,42) = 3.790, p = 0.058, = 0.083. For the slower velocity (3 cm/s), the TTC tended to be judged shorter than for the faster velocity (9 cm/s). A significant velocity × TTC interaction was found, F(2,84) = 7.831, p = 0.003, = 0.157, = 0.692. Only for the two longer TTCs, the relative error was lower for the fast compared to the slow velocity. The velocity × group interaction was not significant, F(1,42) = 2.553, p = 0.118, = 0.057. There was no TTC × group interaction, F(2,84) = 0.095, p= 0.784, = 0.002 (see Figure 6). Neither was there a velocity × TTC × group interaction, F(2,84) = 0.182, p = 0.751, = 0.004. The main effect of group was not significant, F(1,42) = 0.214, p = 0.646, = 0.005.


Depression does not affect time perception and time-to-contact estimation.

Oberfeld D, Thönes S, Palayoor BJ, Hecht H - Front Psychol (2014)

Mean relative error of the TTC estimates as a function of TTC, velocity, and group.(A) Control group. (B) Depressive patients. Error bars: 95% CIs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109439&req=5

Figure 6: Mean relative error of the TTC estimates as a function of TTC, velocity, and group.(A) Control group. (B) Depressive patients. Error bars: 95% CIs.
Mentions: For the TTC estimation (PM) task, we used the same criterion for outlier exclusion as for the timing tasks. In total, only 0.2% of the trials were excluded as outliers. An rmANOVA with the within-subjects factors velocity and TTC, and the between-subjects factor group (patients and controls), showed a significant effect of TTC on the relative error, F(2,84) = 76.122, p < 0.001, = 0.644, = 0.551. The mean relative errors (see Figure 5) show that TTC estimates were generally above the veridical value, especially at a TTC of 0.5 s. Velocity had no significant effect on the relative error of the TTC estimates, F(1,42) = 3.790, p = 0.058, = 0.083. For the slower velocity (3 cm/s), the TTC tended to be judged shorter than for the faster velocity (9 cm/s). A significant velocity × TTC interaction was found, F(2,84) = 7.831, p = 0.003, = 0.157, = 0.692. Only for the two longer TTCs, the relative error was lower for the fast compared to the slow velocity. The velocity × group interaction was not significant, F(1,42) = 2.553, p = 0.118, = 0.057. There was no TTC × group interaction, F(2,84) = 0.095, p= 0.784, = 0.002 (see Figure 6). Neither was there a velocity × TTC × group interaction, F(2,84) = 0.182, p = 0.751, = 0.004. The main effect of group was not significant, F(1,42) = 0.214, p = 0.646, = 0.005.

Bottom Line: However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive.We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction.We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Section Experimental Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Mainz, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Depressed patients frequently report a subjective slowing of the passage of time. However, experimental demonstrations of altered time perception in depressed patients are not conclusive. We added a timed action task (time-to-contact estimation, TTC) and compared this indirect time perception task to the more direct classical methods of verbal time estimation, time production, and time reproduction. In the TTC estimation task, the deviations of the estimates from the veridical values (relative errors) revealed no differences between depressed patients (N= 22) and healthy controls (N= 22). Neither did the relative errors of the TTC estimates differ between groups. There was a weak trend toward higher variability of the estimates in depressed patients but only at the shortest TTC and at the fastest velocities. Time experience (subjective flow of time) as well as time perception in terms of interval timing (verbal estimation, time production, time reproduction) performed on the same subjects likewise failed to produce effects of depression. We conclude that the notion that depression has a sizeable effect on time perception cannot be maintained.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus